Matsudaira Sadakatsu (松平定勝)

Sadakatsu MATSUDAIRA (1560 - May 1, 1624) was a busho (Japanese military commander) in the Sengoku Period (Period of Warring States) and a daimyo (Japanese territorial lord) in the early Edo period. The lord of Kakegawa domain in Totomi Province. The lord of Fushimi domain in Yamashiro Province. The first lord of Kuwana Domain in Ise Province. A younger maternal half-brother of Ieyasu TOKUGAWA. The founder of the Hisamatsu-Matsudaira head family of the Sadakatsu family line.

The forth son of Toshikatsu HISAMATSU. His mother was Odai no kata, a daughter of Tadamasa MIZUNO. His lawful wife was an adopted daughter of Nobumasa OKUDAIRA and Tatsu (Ninomaru dono, a daughter of Sadatomo OKUDAIRA). His children were Sadayoshi MATSUDAIRA (the first son), Sadayuki MATSUDAIRA (the second son), Sadatsuna MATSUDAIRA (the third son), Sadazane MATSUDAIRA (the forth son), Sadafusa MATSUDAIRA (the fifth son), Sadamasa MATSUDAIRA (the sixth son), Matsuo (the first daughter and the lawful wife of Masanari HATTORI), Kumahime (an adopted daughter of Ieyasu and the lawful wife of Tadayoshi YAMAUCHI), a daughter (the lawful wife of Hisamori NAKAGAWA), a daughter (the lawful wife of Tadayuki SAKAI), a daughter (the second wife of Shigetsugu ABE), a daughter (the lawful wife of Tsunemoto IKEDA). His older brothers were Yasumoto MATSUDAIRA and Yasutoshi MATSUDAIRA and his older paternal half-brother was Nobutoshi HISAMATSU. The announcer Sadatomo MATSUDAIRA is one of his descendants. His official court ranks were Jugoinoge (Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade), Oki no kami (Governor of Oki Province), Jushiinoge (Junior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade), and Sakone gon no shosho (Provisional Minor Captain of the Left Division of Inner Palace Guards).

Career and Personal Profile

Sadakatsu MATSUDAIRA was born in February, 1560 in Agui-jo Castle in Owari Province. Soon after the birth, he was given the family name Matsudaira and the mallow crest according to the lineage of his older maternal half-brother Motoyasu MATSUDAIRA (who later changed his family name to Tokugawa). He took a part in the Battle of Nagashino and the Battle of Tenmokuzan with his older maternal half-brother Ieyasu. Soon after Nobunaga ODA committed suicide during the Honnoji Incident by the hand of his vassal Mitsuhide AKECHI, Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI who extended his influence, demanded that Ieyasu hand over Sadakatsu to the Hashiba family as an adopted son in June, 1582. However, the demand of Sadakatsu's mother, Odai no kata resulted in him staying in the Matsudaira family. This was because the eldest son of Odai no kata, Yasumoto was always away from home and her second son Katsutoshi had been held hostage by another family since he was a child. Odai no kata missed those children who could not be with her, and therefore refused to give her youngest son Sadakatsu to other family. It was said that Sadakatsu temporarily lost favor with Ieyasu for this reason but Ieyasu seemed to have affection for Sadakatsu because he was the youngest maternal half-brother who was of a similar age to his sons and Ieyasu gave the Sadakatsu's childhood name to one of his children.

Sadakatsu found a wife by the mediation of Ieyasu. After the Battle of Nagashino, Ieyasu heard a heartbreaking story from his adopted son-in-law Nobumasa that hostages were sacrificed during his time serving the Takeda clan. Among those hostages was the younger brother of Nobumasa and a girl from his family. Ieyasu felt such pity that, upon hearing that the girl had a younger sister, he decided to make her the wife of his younger maternal half-brother for the repose of their souls. It was the wife of Sadakatsu, Ninomaru dono (after their marriage, her older brother and un uncle also came with her from the Okudaira family).

In April, 1587, Sadakatsu's father Toshikatsu died in Okazaki-jo Castle in Mikawa Province (aged 62, his posthumous Buddhist name was Yokoinden) and was buried in Anraku-ji Temple in Mikawa Province. When Sadakatsu's older maternal half-brother Ieyasu attacked Kanie-jo Castle in Owari Province in July of the same year, Sadakatsu was the second to arrive at the battlefield.

In September, 1590, he was given 3,000 koku of Kominami in Shimousa Province (presently Tonosho-machi, Chiba Prefecture). In 1600, 4,000 koku was added and he became the lord of Nagashima-jo Castle in Ise Province. 20,000 koku were subsequently added and he became a lord holding 27,000 koku. In March, 1601, 3,000 koku was added and he became the lord of Kakegawa Domain in Totomi Province in place of Katsutoyo YAMAUCHI (Governor of Tsushima Province). Three months later he was appointed Jugoinoge (Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade) Governor of Oki Province. The official title 'Governor of Oki Province' was bestowed upon successive generations of the Matsudaira family of the Matsuyama Domain.

In April, 1602, the 10th son of Ieyasu (the future Yorinobu TOKUGAWA) was born in Fushimi-jo Castle.
Ieyasu ordered that this child be given Sadakatsu's childhood name of 'Chofukumaru.'
Consequently the name Chofukumaru became the name of legitimate sons of the Kii family. In September of the same year, Sadakatsu's mother Odai no kata died in Fushimi-jo Castle. She died aged 77. Her posthumous Buddhist name was Dentsuinden. Her coffin left Fushimi-jo Castle at the end of the same month. It was accompanied by Sadakatsu. In March, 1603, Ieyasu was given the title of seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians"). In June, 1605, Sadakatutsu's daughter Kumahime was adopted by Ieyasu and became engaged to Tadayoshi YAMAUCHI. Kumahime was given 1,000 koku of Yamada-go in Bungo Province by Ieyasu as a dowry.

In 1607, Sadakatsu was appointed Fushimi jodai (the keeper of Fushimi-jo Castle) in Yamashiro Province. In 1615, he was listed in the Daimyo (feudal lord) families which were promoted to higher than Shihon (the fourth rank). In 1616, 60,000 koku was added and he became the lord of the Kuwana domain holding 110,000 koku. In the next year, Ieyasu died in Sunpu-jo Castle. He was aged 75. It is said that Sadakatsu was asked to be the adviser of the young second Shogun, Hidetada TOKUGAWA by the dying Ieyasu in his last words, and also that the third Shogun Iemitsu TOKUGAWA created the position of Tairo (chief minister) thinking of the presence of Sadakatsu in life.

After the death of influential Ieyasu TOKUGAWA, Sadakatsu was well-respected by Ieyasu's nephew, Shogun Hidetada TOKUGAWA, but he firmly refused his offer to be a chamberlain in July, 1623. Two months later, he was appointed Sakone gon no shosho. Consequently, he was called Kuwana shosho dono. The next year he died in Kuwana-jo Castle in Ise where he resided. He died at 65. His posthumous Buddhist name was 崇源院殿前四品羽林次将雲巌円徹大居士 (later changed to Sogeninden). He was buried in Shogen-ji Temple in Kuwana, Ise Province and his mortuary tablet was placed in Edo Dentsu-in Temple and later also enshrined in Matsuyama Dairin-ji Temple and Imabari Shogen-in Temple (abandoned).

In 1823, he was given the Shinto deity title Okinakasakitama no mikoto by Sadamichi MATSUDAIRA, the 11th Lord of Iyo-Matsuyama Domain and enshrined in Shinonome-jinja Shrine in Matsuyama-jo Castle (Iyo Province). His Shinto deity title subsequently changed to Shinonome Daimyojin.