Taira no Masakado (平将門)
TAIRA no Masakado (903 - March 30, 940) was a warlord during the mid-Heian Period. He was commonly known by the names SOMA no Kojiro and TAKIGUCHI no Kojiro.
He was descended from Emperor Kanmu, and was a grandson of TAIRA no Takamochi (also known as Takamochi-o), who had been given the surname of Taira by Emperor Kanmu. He was a son of the Chinju-fu Shogun, TAIRA no Yoshimasa (also known as Yoshimochi). As the intra-clan hostilities among the Heishi (i.e., the Taira clan) spread into Shimosa and Hitachi provinces, he attacked the kokuga (provincial government office) of each province in Kanto, and confiscated the innyaku (the great seal and key); therefore, he came to be viewed as an enemy by the Imperial Court. Rivaling the Imperial Court in Kyoto, he enthroned himself as an emperor, assuming the title "Shinno (New Emperor)." He aimed to create a country independent of the Imperial Court, but his rebellion was put down by FUJIWARA no Hidesato and TAIRA no Sadamori and so on (Johei-Tengyo no Ran (Rebellion of Johei-Tengyo)). After his death he was enshrined at Tsukudo-jinja Shrine, Kanda Myojin Shrine and Kokuo-jinja Shrine. In some circles, he is also thought of as representing the origin of the samurai.
His Upbringing and the Strife among the Taira Clan
It is said that his father, TAIRA no Yoshimasa, governed Sakura City, Shimosa Province, and there exists a district named Masakado in Sakura City to this day, but there are no historical documents that substantiate these claims. Also, because he grew up in his mother's hometown of Soma-gun County (Shimosa Province) he is said to have been named "Soma Kojiro"; however, this does not mean that Soma-gun County was in his sphere of influence, as the actual centers of power are considered to have been in Toyota-gun County (Shimosa Province) and Sashima-gun County (Shimosa Province). Masakado left the countryside and went to Heian-kyo (ancient Kyoto) to become a follower of FUJIWARA no Tadahira, who was the uji no choja (chieftain) of the Fujiwara-Hokke (the Northern House of the Fujiwara clan); however, he returned to his own territory when his father, Yoshikado, passed away unexpectedly. Subsequently, a conflict broke out that initiated what would come to be called, "TAIRA no Masakado's War", and a number of theories have been proposed as to the cause, but a definitive cause has not been established. One theory holds that because the system of birthright inheritance by the eldest son had not been established at that time, the conflict broke out because Yoshimasa's property was arbitrarily divided between his brothers (Masakado's uncles) TAIRA no Kunika and TAIRA no Yoshikane; another theory, based on the "Masakado Ki" (Record of Masakado), holds that the conflict broke out either over a daughter of the former Kokushi (provincial governors) of Hitachi Province, MINAMOTO no Mamoru, or the daughter of Yoshikane; and a third theory that states that the conflict broke out because of the interference of MINAMOTO no Mamoru and TAIRA no Maki in a territorial feud. Because Masakado at first fought against his uncles, it tends to be viewed as "intra-clan conflict of the Bando-Heishi," but because Kunika, Yoshikane and Yoshimasa all had taken as wife daughters of MINAMOTO no Mamoru, whereas Masakado's father, Yoshimasa, had not, it is also said that it was "a conflict between MINAMOTO no Mamoru and his relatives, and Masakado."
In March 935, Masakado was attacked by MINAMOTO no Mamoru's sons, including MINAMOTO no Tasuku, in Nomoto of Makabe-gun County in Hitachi Province (Chikusei City), but he repelled their attack, and many, including Tasuku, were killed in the battle. Masakado kept his troops on the march and advanced from Okushi and Toride (Shimotsuma-shi City) to Mamoru's base in Makabe-gun County, and he then proceeded to burn down Mamoru's base, kiling his uncle, Kunika, in the fire. In November of the same year, TAIRA no Yoshimasa, whose clan was related to MINAMOTO no Mamoru through marriage, assembled an army and set up camp in Kawawa, Nihari-no-sato Village (Yachiyo-cho) along the Kinu-gawa River, where he faced off against Masakado, but Masakado also obliterated Yoshimasa's army.
Yoshimasa, having lost against Masakado, went to Yoshikane for help, and Yoshikane, who had been watching quietly from the sidelines, as the head of the clan after the death of Kunika, could not refuse to come to his aid, so he recruited Kunika's son, TAIRA no Sadamori, built up an army and left Kazusa Province on July 22, 936, to attack Masakado, but was ambushed by Masakado and fled in defeat, seeking protection from the kokuga (provincial government office) in Shimotsuke Province (Tochigi Prefecture)
Masakado surrounded the local government of Shimotsuke Province, but opened one section of the siege line, purposely letting Yoshikane flee, after which he negotiated with the kokuga, making them consent to his legitimacy before returning to his home province.
In the same year, based on a complaint submitted by MINAMOTO no Mamoru, Masakado and TAIRA no Maki received a summons from the Imperial Court, and Masakado went to Heian-kyo (Kyoto), where he was interrogated at the Kebiishicho (Office of Police and Judicial Chief), but he was pardoned of all crimes because of an amnesty granted on May 24, 937, at the occassion of Emperor Suzaku's genpuku (celebrate one's coming of age). Even after returning to his home province Masakado continued to be confronted by Yoshikane and the majority of the clan, and on September 18, Yoshikane attacked Masakado's Ikuha no mimaya, holding up portraits of Masakado's father, Yoshimasa, and other ancestors, such as Takamochi-o. Masakado was defeated in this battle and fled, and Yoshikane returned with Masakado's wife and children (Yoshikane's daughter and grandchildren). However, with the help of younger brothers (expressed as 'talking to the brothers' in "Masakado Ki," and therefore it is assumed to be TAIRA no Kinmasa and TAIRA no Kintsura) they fled again on October 21 and returned to Masakado. Masakado, having been rejuvinated by the return of his wife and children, took the action of proclaiming his legitimacy to the Imperial Court. Consequently, the Imperial Court issued a Daijokanpu (official documents issued by Daijokan, Grand Council of State) on December 15 of the same year. This kanpu has conventionally been interpreted as having been issued to have TAIRA no Yoshikane, TAIRA no Sadamori and MIMAMOTO no Mamoru subjugate Masakado; however, because inconsistencies arose between the facts preceding and following the event, another theory, holding that Yoshikane and others had angered the Imperial Court when Yoshikane and Sadamori attacked Ikuha no mimaya, which officially belong to Meryo (the section taking care of imperial horses), and that Masakado had received the kanpu as an order to subdue them, has become prominent. In any case, siezing this as an opportunity, Masakado drove Yoshikane's troops to Mt. Tsukuba-san; within 3 years Yoshikane died of illness, and Masakado's prowess came to be known throughout the Kanto region.
In February 939, the newly appointed governor of Musashi province, Okiyo-o (genealogy unknown), and MINAMOTO no Tsunemoto (first of the Seiwa Genji) who held the rank of suke, came into conflict with MUSASHI no Takeshiba, who held the rank of gunji (local magistrate), in Adachi-gun County. Masakado brought Okiyo-o and MUSASHI no Takeshiba together for a meeting so as to mediate a settlement between the two sides; however, Takeshiba's army surrounded Tsunemoto's camp (full account unknown), and Tsunemoto, surprised, fled to Kyoto. When he reached Kyo (Kyoto), Tsunemoto made a complaint to the Imperial court about the insurrection by Masakado, Okiyo-o and Takeshiba. Masakado's master, the Daijodaijin (Grand minister of state), FUJIWARA no Tadahira, decided to investigate the truth of the matter, and to that end, issued a migyosho (a document for informing people of the decision of Third Rank or upper people) and sent an emissary to the eastern provinces. Surprised, Masakado accepted the official document, and submitted his own documents, dated May 28, as proof that for the local governments of the five provinces of Hitachi, Shimosa, Shimotsuke, Musashi and Kozuke "the suspicion of rebellion is completely groundless". Because of this, the Imperial Court cleared Masakado of all suspicions, and Tsunemoto, in turn, was punished for the crime of false accusation. Having become aware of Masakado's high repute in the Kanto region, the Imperial Court was debating enlisting his services by bestowing on him a court rank and official position in the government.
During this period, the fighting between Masakado and his adversaries was viewed as merely private warfare (personal skirmishes among the gozoku [regional ruling families]) and it is thought that the Imperial Court did not see them as rebellious acts against the country.
TAIRA no Masakado's War
At this time, Okiyo-o, who had become Musashi Gon no kami (a provisional governor of Musashi Province), was not on good terms with KUDARA no Sadatsura, Musashi no kuni-no kami, who had just been appointed as a zuryo; this led Okiyo-o to abandon his assigned region and seek refuge with Masakado. In addition, when FUJIWARA no Haruaki of Hitachi Province sought protection upon the issuance of a warrant for his arrest for being delinquent on tax payments to the Imperial Court, Masakado hid Haruaki and refused the request from the local government of Hitachi to hand him over. Then, on January 8, 940, Masakado assembled his army, advanced to the Hitachi Fuchu (in Ishioka City) and demanded the rescission of the arrest order. Because the local government of Hitachi refused his demand and declared war, Masakado had no choice but to fight, and even though Masakado was leading a force of only slighhtly more than 1,000 men, he quickly defeated the local government's army of 3,000 men, and the Hitachi no suke, FUJIWARA no Korechika, was forced to surrender. The kokuga (local government) fell to Masakado's army, and Masakado confiscated Inju (the great seal). This incident, in the final analysis, though unintended as such, amounted to an act of rebellion against the Imperial Court. Masakado received the following advice from Okiyo-o, who had become his vassal: "Upon assessing the overall situation, it became clear that we could be accused harshly of subjugating even one local government by the Imperial court, so, we might as well defeat Bando, and wait to see what they do first." On January 27 of the same year, he occupied the local government of Shimonotsuke Province, and then he captured the governor of Kozuke province, FUJIWARA no Hisanori (because this province was a shinno ninkoku [provinces whose gubernatorial posts were reserved as sinecures for imperial princes], the suke had the highest authority), and in exchange for sparing his life, Masakado took possession of the inju and exiled him; on February 4, he toppled the provincial office of Kozuke, which had lost its commander, thereby capturing the entirety of the Kanto region, enthroned himself as Shinno (the New Emperor), and, performing a Jimoku assignment ceremony himself, established the seicho (government office) in Iwai City (Bando City of Ibaraki Prefecture). When he was about to assume for himself the title of Shinno (New Emperor), he was advised agasinst doing so by his younger brother, TAIRA no Masahira, and his page, IWA no Kazutsune, however, he ignored their advice.
Jimoku Assignments by New Emperor Masakado and Their Background
Shimotsuke-no-kami: TAIRA no Masayori (Masakado's younger brother)
Kouzuke-no-kami: TAJI no Tsuneakira (Jinto [spearhead] and Ikuha no mimaya Betto)
Hitachi-no-suke: FUJIWARA no Harumochi (Hitachi-no-jo)
Kazusa-no-suke: Okiyo-o (Musashi-no-gon-no-kami)
Awa-no-kami: BUNYA no Yoshitachi (johei)
Sagami-no-kami: TAIRA no Masafumi (younger brother of Masakado)
Izu-no-kami: TAIRA no Masatake (younger brother of Masakado)
Shimosa-no-kami: TAIRA no Masatame (younger brother of Masakado)
He set up his official residence as Shinno in Teinami, Shimosa Province (an alternative version holds that it was in Ishii, Sashima-gun county), fashioning Bunahashi after Yamazaki in Kyoto, and Tsu in Oi, Soma-gun county after Otsu, appointing Monbunhyakkan officials such as Sayu-daijin, Nagon, Sangi, and commissioned the creation of a Naiin (inner seal) and Gein (outer seal); it is said that he tried to establish a capital of a new nation in Bando modeled after the imperial capital in Kyoto.
The news of Masakado's insurrection reached Kyoto almost immediately, and at the same time there was another report of a rebellion by FUJIWARA no Sumitomo in the western provinces, leaving the Imperial Court aghast. Temples and shrines were immediately ordered to pray for the quelling of the rebellions, and on February 24 of the following year (940), MINAMOTO no Tsunemoto was given the court rank of Jugoinoge (Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade) in recognition of the fact that his previous secret report became true; on March 5, a punitive force headed by Sangi FUJIWARA no Tadafumi as Seito taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the eastern barbarians") set out from Kyoto to the eastern provinces.
In Kanto, during mid-January of the same year, Masakado led an army of 5,000 men and advanced to Hitachi province, in search of the whereabouts of TAIRA no Sadamori and Korechika's son, FUJIWARA no Tamenori. He was unable to determine the whereabouts of Sadamori, but he captured the wives of Sadamori and MINAMOTO no Tasuku. Masakado took pity on these women after they were subjected to humiliating treatment by his men, giving them clothing and allowing them go return to their homes. Masakado returned to his home base in Shimosa and he let the troops return to their home provinces. This string of actions taken by Masakado is described as frivolous in the "Masakado Ki," which states, "Thus, the New Emperor demonstrated that he was not a man of the world, but more like a big fish in a small pond," and in fact, considering the fate Masakado was later to meet, it can be said that the fact that he spent an undue amount of time and military power searching for Sadamori at a critical juncture when he should have been solidifying his own base, proved a fatal error.
He soon received a report that Sadamori was uniting his power with Oryoshi of Shimonotsuke Province, FUJIWARA no Hidesato, and that they were gathering an army of 4,000 men. Masakado had let most of his men, whom had been drafted from various provinces, return to their home provinces; therefore, he had only a small force of fewer than 1,000 men on hand. Thinking that the passage of time would put him at a disadvantage, he mobilized his troops on March 17; the commanders TAJI no Tsuneakira and SAKANOUE no Katsutaka, under Masakado's Vice Shogun FUJIWARA no Harumochi, launched an attack on Sadamori and Hidesato's army as soon as they found them, without first reporting to Masakado, but Harumochi's army was defeated. Sadamori and Hidesato's army gave chase and engaged Masakado's army in Kawaguchi, Shimosa Province; Masakado himself was at the battlefront and fought bravely, causing Sadamori and Hidesato to waver, but the numerically superior Imperial forces gained the advantage over Masakado's army with the passage of time, and Masakado was eventually forced to retreat.
Masakado went into hiding in Hiroe, Sashima-gun County, in an attempt to lure the enemy into his home territory, where he could hope to rout them, making use of the advantageous lay of the land. However, Sadamori and Hidesato were not lured into Masakado's trap, and instead, they proclaimed their victory in the previous battle to the people, enabling them to further augment their ranks, including the addition of FUJIWARA no Tamenori; on February 13, they embarked on a campaign to carry out a "scorched earth policy" aiming to attack and burn down Masakado's home base in Ishii. Though this would result in the people losing their homes and ending up in the streets, it is said that they were more incensed at Masakodo's "incompetent government" than the prospect of being burned out of house and home by the marauding army, and had already distanced themselves from Masakado. Still wearing his armor, Masakado continued to evade Sadamori, wandering about from place to place, and though he tried to assemble an army for a counterattack, due to the unfavorable circumstances, he was unable to gather as many men as he'd anticipated, so he led a mere 400 men to his camp in Kitayama, Sashima-gun County, and waited for reinforcements from his allies. However, his whereabouts became known to the enemy before reinforcements arrived, and he went into his final battle with leading an army vastly outnumbered by the enemy army.
The battle between the allied army and Masakado's army began at 3 o'clock in the afternoon on February 14. A wind swept down from the notrh, giving Masakado an advantageous windward position, which he made good use of in attacking the allied army with arrows. The troops at the center of Sadamori's battle formation laid an ambush for Masakado, but they were discovered and routed, Sadamori, Hidesato and Tamenori's armies were obliterated, and 2900 of their troops fled, with only slightly more than 300 elite troops left standing. However, while the triumphant Masakado was returning to his camp, the direction of the wind abruptly reversed to the south, and the remaining allied forces, now having the windward advantage, regrouped and took the opportunity to launch a counterattack. Astride his horse, Masakado fought valiantly on the battlefront, but his fleet footed horse, which had been galloping like the wind, began to tire and lost its pace, leaving Masakado at a loss for a means to drive forward with his heroic battle, and he died in battle when a loosed arrow struck him on the forehead.
His head was transported to Heian-kyo, and it was put on public display. The placing of Masakado's decapitated head on public display is the oldest confirmed example of the practice in history.
The rebelions by Masakado (TAIRA no Masakado's War), and FUJIWARA no Sumitomo, which occurred at about the same time around the Seto Inland Sea, are together referred to as, "Johei and Tengyo War (Rebellion of Johei-Tengyo)."
Change in How He Was Viewed over Time
Because of the efforts he made to stand up for the downtrodden and social outcasts, and his heroic, tragic death in battle, he has long been the subject of anecdotes and legends among people throughout the Kanto area. This can be considered to be due to the fact that Masakado has come to be viewed as a man who stood up for the people of the eastern provinces, who had continually been forced to bear a heavy load.
During the middle ages, there are frequent reports of the occurrence of extraordinary or supernatural phenomena was around Masakado-zuka (the burial mound of TAIRA no Masakado); in order to quiet the fears of the people of that time, who feared that such phenomena were due to the wrath of Masakado's spirit, the yugyo-so monk, Shinkyo of Jishu enshrined Masakado as a god, and in 1309 he was recognized as a god at Kanda Myojin.
Sengoku Period warlords, such as Dokan OTA and Ujitsuna HOJO, prayed to that diety for good fortune on the battlefield at Kanda Myojin; furthermore, at the occasion of the Battle of Sekigahara, the victory of Ieyasu TOKUGAWA was prayed there. Therefore, during the Edo Period, the Kanda Myojin Shrine, where TAIRA no Masakado was enshrined, was revered as the Edo Sochinju (the center place to pray for local gods) by the Shogunate.
In addition, the Dainagon (Major Counselor), Mitsuhiro KARASUMA, visited Edo as Imperial envoy during the era of Iemitsu TOKUGAWA, the third Seii taishogun (literally, "great general who subdues the barbarians") of the Edo Shogunate, to hear of Masakado's achievements from the Shogunate, upon which he cleared Masakado tarnished reputation as an enemy of the Imperial Court, reporting the Emperor in proclaiming, "Masakado is not an enemy of the Imperial Court" during the era of Iemitsu.
It is said that Kanda Myojin Shrine was relocated by the Shogunate to the current location of kimon (the northeastern [unlucky] direction, person or thing to be avoided) at Edo-jo Castle. The act of emplacing the shrine dedicated to Masakado, who had rebelled against the Imperial court, at the Kimon of the Shogun's residential castle, is said to have been a demonstration of the resolve of the Tokugawa clan not to have the Imperial Court interfere in the affairs of the Shogunate government. The name "Kanda" of Kanda Myojin, according to one theory, is said to be derived from the word for body, "karada," representing the torso of Masakado after he was decapitated; the name of the area where the burial mound of Masakado's torso is located in Bando City is "Kadoyama" (the first two characters are written with the same two characters as Kanda).
After the Meiji Restoration, Masakado's antagonization of the Imperial Court and his status were raised as problematic; as a result, he came to be treated as a rebel. In 1874, by order of Kyobusho (Ministry of Religion), his remains were removed from the Kanda Myojin Shrine and transferred to Masakado-jinja Shrine.
After the World War II, he was often treated as a hero who bravely confronted the tyrannical government of the Imperial Court, and opened up a new era by enthroning himself as a New Emperor, in a manner similar as Aterui of Northern Tohoku. TAIRA no Masakado's spirit was again enshrined together with the god of Kanda Myojin in 1984.
Therefore, the manner in which Masakado has been viewed has changed greatly: enemy of the Imperial Court in ancient times; venerated figure during the middle ages; gyakuzoku rebel during the Meiji Period; and hero after the World War II. At present, it is anticipated that Masakado's life and his treatment since then will become the focus of more academically oriented research.
Haruki MURAKAMI (local historian, and former high school teacher, not the famous fiction writer by the same name), has conducted research into the legends about Masakado, and has proposed the following schema for categorizing the legends.
Legends of the Nether World (Legends of Masakado as having gone to hell)
Legends of Subjugation
Legends of Commemoration (Legends of the Shrine where Masakado is enshrined)
Legends of Kingdom (Legends of the capital Masakado built)
Legends of the Gibbetted Head
Legends of Invulnerability (Legends that portray Masakado's only weakness as his temples)
Legends of the Seven Masakados (Legends of Masakado's Kagemusha [body double])
Legends of Collusion between East and West
Legends of Masakado Clan
Legends of Hermitage
Legends of Subjugation
Naritasan Shinsho-ji Temple in Narita City, Chiba Prefecture, is a temple which, according to legend, was built over a place where a prayer ritual to vitalize the anti-Masakado forces was conducted by Buddhist Priest Kancho Sojo, who took the sea route (land route took too long) to go down to the Kanto area on a secret order from Emperor Suzaku, who feared the disorder in the eastern provinces. For this reason, the descendants of Masakado and his retainers still do not visit Naritasan Shinsho-ji Temple to this day, even after the passage of 1,080 years. There is also still a tendency among a portion of the long time residents of Masakado, Sakura City, which appears in His Upbringing, and also in one part of Bando City, where Seicho was located, to view visiting the temple unfavorably. Many of ujiko (shrine parishioners) of the Tsukudo-jinja Shrine and Kanda-jinja Shrine (Kanda Myojin) do not visit the temple because legend says that those who visit the Naritasan Shinsho-ji Temple cannot receive the protection of TAIRA no Masakado no miko, who is an Ubusunagami (guardian deity of one's birthplace). Cast members of the Taiga drama (NHK Historical Drama) series "Wind, Clouds and the Rainbow" also declined to take part in the bean-scattering ceremony (setsubun), which celebrates the coming of spring, at Naritasan Shinsho-ji Temple.
Legends of the Gibbeted Head
At "Historic Place Kanda-jingu Shrine" in Shinkamanza-cho, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto City (Nishi-no-toin Higashi-iru, Shijo-dori), there is a small shrine that appears dwarfed among the numerous residential homes. The plaque at the site that testifies to its authenticity and recounts the history states that, "This is where TAIRA no Masakado's head was put on public display during the period of Tengyo."
According to the legend, Masakado's decapitated head was put on public display at Shichijogawara in Kyoto, but it looked as if his eyes were wide open and he was grinding his teeth even after many months.
It is said that the Kajin (a waka poet) Sakon FUJIROKU saw Masakado's head and recited a waka poem, at which time it is said that Masakado's head laughed, the earth suddenly began to shake, there was thunder and lightening, and the head said "I need to get back my body and go into battle! Where is my body!"
The voice rang out every night. Then, one night the head emitted a white light and flew due east in search of its body; therefore, the head burial mound is not found in Kyoto. This heroic warrior is said to have curdled the blood of all in Rakuchu even after his death.
Anecdotes about the burial mound of Masakado's head is passed down in various regions. The most noted of which is of the burial mound for Masakado's head located in Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo. An accident occurs whenever there is a plan to transfer the burial mound, and it is greatly feared even to this day.
According to the legend passed down at the Mikubi-jinja Shrine (literally, "Shrine of the Honored Head), Masakado's was felled by an arrow loosed by the god Hayato-shin, who is enshrined at the Nangu-taisha Shrine in Mino; Masakado was enshrined and worshipped as a god at the place where he fell, and the Mikubi-jinja Shrine was built in order to appease Masakado's anger and console his spirit so that his head would not return to the eastern provinces.
When he became widely known at the end of Showa Period, appearing in Hiroshi ARAMATA's novel, "Teito Monogatari" (The tale of the Imperial Capital), which takes as its theme of the spiritual protectors of Tokyo, he became popular as the "Guardian Spirit of Tokyo" among many followers of the occult.
Legends of Masakado's Family
Legend holds that Masakado had come to be referred to by the title Hinomoto Shogun TAIRA no Shinno at the time that the military epic, "Gen-pei Tojoroku," was completed, which is considered to have been written in 1337 at the latest. According to this legend, Masakado conquered eight provinces with the gorisho (prayer answered) of Myoken Bosatsu, but because he had a cruel heart, paid no mind to what the gods might think, and had no fear of the Emperor's authority, Myoken Bosatsu crossed over to TAIRA no Yoshifumi's side, who was Masakado's uncle (an older brother of Masakado's father through adaption who was in actuality, younger brother of Masakado's father). This legend was passed down in the Chiba clan, who claim to be descendants of Yoshifumi, and in particular, in the Soma clan, who ruled the territory of Soma-gun County (Shimosa Province), which, according to legend, was Masakado's home base.
As to the background of the spread of his legend during the middle ages and in the modern era under the title "Hinomoto Shogun TAIRA no Shinno" as opposed to the title he had assumed himself, "New Emperor," Yukihiko SEKI points out that the legend was passed down with the new title as a means of eliminating the possibility of interpreting the name as representing the potentially divisive and dangerous notion of a separate, independent Bando, thereby facilitating respect for the law, and that it reflects the administrative philospphy of MINAMOTO no Yoritomo who chose to become the head of a separate military administration that could peacefully coexist with the Imperial Court.