Taira no Nobunori (平信範)

TAIRA no Nobunori (1112 - March 30, 1187) was a court noble in the late Heian period. He was from the line of Kanmu-Heishi (Taira clan) Prince Takamune, and was the third son of TAIRA no Tomonobu, who held the office of Hyobusho (ministry of military). His mother was the daughter of FUJIWARA no Korenobu, who held the title of Tonomo no kami (the Director of the Imperial Palace Keeper's Bureau). His brothers included TAIRA no Tokinobu and TAIRA no Tomonori. His wife was the daughter of FUJIWARA no Yoshitada, who held the title of shonagon (lesser councilor of state). His children included TAIRA no Nobumoto, TAIRA no Nobukuni, and TAIRA no Nobusue. He held the rank of Shosanmi (Senior Third Rank) and the office of Hyobusho. His azana (adult male nickname) was Hirano. He was famous as the author of "Heihanki" (diary of TAIRA no Nobunori).


In 1121, he held a post in Kidendo (the study of the histories), after which he held the posts of Kurodo (Chamberlain), Shurishiki (Office of Palace Repairs), Hyoe-fu (Headquarters of the Middle Palace Guards), Emonfu (Headquarters of the Outer Palace Guards), and Kai Province. He also served as Keishi (household superintendent) of the Sekke (line of regents and advisers) (the Konoe family) over four generations, from FUJIWARA no Tadazane to Motomichi KONOE. Particularly, Nobunori gained strong confidence from FUJIWARA no Tadamichi, and thus Nobunori's wife served Tadamichi's eldest son, Motozane KONOE, as a wet nurse (according to "Sankaiki" (Tadachika NAKAYAMA's diary), the section of June 10 in the third year of Jisho era). Further, when Motozane was awarded the rank of Jusanmi (Junior Third Rank) to set up the office of Mandokoro (Administrative Board), Nobunori was the only keishi and thus he automatically served concurrently as Mandokoro betto (Director of the Administrative Board). Because of this, he was oppressed by FUJIWARA no Yorinaga, who held the title of Sadaijin (minister of the left), and was removed as azukaridokoro (a deputy of "Shoen" manor lord) in the manor of sekke where Nobunori was designated (because Yorinaga was Toshi choja (head of the Fujiwara clan) on this occasion).

After the Hogen War, he also served concurrently as Mandokoro betto for Tadamichi to assist him after becoming Toshi choja again. In 1158 when he held the rank of Shogoinoge (Senior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade) and the office of shonagon (lesser councilor of state), there was an incident where FUJIWARA no Nobuyori cut across in front of Tadamichi, who was then a chief adviser to the Emperor; low ranked people serving Tadamichi destroyed Nobuyori's car for his discourtesy. As Nobuyori appealed to Emperor Goshirakawa, the Emperor expelled Nobunori, who was then keishi for Tadamichi, and FUJIWARA no Kunitsuna from the register and placed them on effective probation.

After that, he was appointed as Kurodo (Chamberlain) again in 1160 and rose to the rank of Shoshiinoge (Senior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade) and the office of Kurodo no to (chief of the palace officer) Benkan (secretary) in 1168; however, in the following year (1169), there was an incident where FUJIWARA no Narichika, who held the title of In no Kinshin (the retired Emperor's courtier), was exiled due to the direct petition by monks residing in Enryaku-ji Temple (Kao no goso (the direct petition to condemn Fujiwara no Narichika to exile by the monks residing at Enryaku-ji Temple)). As Nobunori was dealing with this incident, he and his nephew TAIRA no Tokitada were brought to the attention of the Cloistered Emperor who wanted them removed from office with the charge that their "report to the throne included falsehoods" and unfortunately exiled them to Bingo Province.

In the following year (1170), however, he was summoned and returned to his original rank and became a court noble in 1171 with the rank of Jusanmi (Junior Third Rank). He rose to title of Hyobusho (ministry of military) in 1173, and to the rank of Shosanmi (Senior Third Rank) in 1176, which were his highest attained title and rank; in 1177, he became a priest. After that, the life of his son TAIRA no Nobumoto and nephew Tokitada was full of ups and downs such that they escaped to the west with the Taira family in the Jisho-Juei War; being defeated in the war, they were captured and exiled. Nobunori, on the other hand, was already retired and thus lived in comfort for the rest of his days. He also dedicated himself to patronage Motomichi, who was a bereaved child of Motozane. He also made his son TAIRA no Nobusue serve Kanezane KUJO, who was Motomichi's uncle, to act as a mediator between Kanezane and Motomichi. Kanezane described in his diary "Gyokuyo" an article about the friendship between Nobunori and Kanezane (in the sections of the end of May in the first year of the Joan era and December 15 and 16 in the third year of the Jisho era, etc.). Furthermore, his youngest daughter, who became Motomichi's wife, gave birth to Michitsune KONOE, who held the title of the Minister of the Right.

His diary called "Heihanki" is famous as the top historical document clearly recording political conditions and rituals of the imperial court in the late Heian period. His descendants became prosperous in several families including the Nishinotoin family, the Hiramatsu family, and the Katano family.

Record of offices and ranks held

Date according to old lunar calendar
1121 (Age 10)
March 23, Kidendo

1125 (Age 14)
January 28, Noto Province

1132 (Age 21)
January 22, Chugushiku (Office of Imperial Wives) (Empress: FUJIWARA no Seishi)

1134 (Age 23)
April 2, Kurodo

1135 (Age 24)
March 14, Shurishiki

1137 (Age 26)
October 26, Hyoe-fu

1138 (Age 27)
January 22, Emonfu
Kebiishi (a police and judicial chief) as well as Emonfu

(Married the daughter of FUJIWARA no Yoshitada around the same year)

1139 (Age 28)
January 5, Jugoinoge (Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade)
January 24, Kai Province
(July 28, Kayanoin hogandai (an administrative official of the Retired-Emperor's Office))

1145 (Age 34)
January 5, Jugoinojo (Junior Fifth Rank, Upper Grade) (Kayanoin Gokyu (a kind of pension paid to members of the Imperial family))

1150 (Age 39)
January 12, Shogoinoge (Senior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade) (Kayanoin Gokyu (a kind of pension paid to members of the Imperial family))

1152 (Age 41)
(August 17, Keishi of Motozane KONOE (Mandokoro betto))

1156 (Age 45)
November 28, shonagon

1158 (Age 47)
January 27, Aki Province

1160 (Age 49)
October 4, Kurodo

1161 (Age 50)
September 15, Kyoshiki (the Capital Bureau)
Resigned as kurodo and shonagon

1165 (Age 54)
January 23, served concurrently as Bingo Province
August 17, benkan
Sakyo no gon no daibu (Provisional Master of the Eastern Capital Offices) nyogen

1166 (Age 55)
January 12, resigned from Sakyo no gon no daibu

1167 (Age 56)
January 30, benkan
Jushiinoge (Junior Forth Rank, Lower Grade)

February 11, Kurodo no to
April 10, Jushiijo (Junior Fourth Rank, Upper Grade)

1168 (Age 57)
January 6, Shoshiinoge (Senior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade)
February 19: the new Emperor (Emperor Takakura) Kurodo no to
September 7, Daijoe Gokei Shozokushi jikan (A vice-minister of the setup team for the ritual conducted in the previous month for the Daijoe ceremony)

1169 (Age 58)
December 28, removed of office
Exiled to Bingo Province

1170 (Age 59)
February 26, recalled
(His wife, the daughter of FUJIWARA no Yoshitada, died on May 10 (died at the age of 57 according to "Heihanki"))
December 9, returned to his original rank

1171 (Age 60)
January 18, Jusanmi

1173 (Age 62)
January 21, Hyobusho

1176 (Age 65)
March 6, Shosanmi (the award of onga and gyoko, Kenshunmonin Gokyu)

1177 (Age 66)
July 5, become a priest