Taira no Tokitada (平時忠)
TAIRA no Tokitada was a court noble who lived during the late Heian period. He was from the Takamune branch of Kanmu-Heishi (TAIRA clan), a so-called Dojo family (a Court noble family which has a hereditary right to be admitted to the Court). His father was TAIRA no Tokinobu, who was Hyobu no Gon no Taifu (provisional senior assistant minister of Hyobusho Ministry of Military). His mother worked as a hashita mono (lower-ranked court lady) for Nijo no Omiya (Imperial Princess Reishi); her family background is not known. He had one brother, TAIRA no Chikamune, and sisters TAIRA no Tokiko (Kiyomori's wife), TAIRA no Shigeko (Kenshunmonin), Reizei no Tsubone (a court lady for Kenshunmonin), Kiyoko (Munemori's wife), Bomon-dono (Shigemori's wife; she may have been Koremori's mother), wife of FUJIWARA no Chikataka (mother of gon shosozu (Junior lesser prelate), Zenshin), and Sochi no Tsubone (court lady for Kenreimonin); his wife was FUJIWARA no Muneko; and, he had sons, TAIRA no Tokizane, TAIRA no Tokiie, Tokimune, and Tokisada, and daughters, Noriko (later, tenji (a maid of honor of the first rank) to the Emperor Gotoba), MINAMOTO no Yoshitsune's concubine, and Tadachika NAKAYAMA's wife. He was also called Taira Dainagon (chief councilor of state) or Taira kanpaku (chief adviser to the Emperor).
With respect to Tokitada's mother, it is recorded in the article for July 18, 1181 in "Kikki" (Tsunefusa YOSHIDA's diary) that she was a hashita mono who served Nijo no Omiya (Imperial Princess Reishi). With Tokinobu, this lady gave birth to Tokitada, Tokiko, and the wife of FUJIWARA no Chikataka. In course of time their relationship became alienated and she remarried FUJIWARA no Akinori, Ushoben (Minor Controller of the Right) and gave birth to Noen, the shugyo (chief priest) of Hossho-ji Temple. After Akinori's death, reportedly, Tokitada and Tokiko took on their mother and attended her with devotion.
With respect to ages of Tokitada and Tokiko, an article on Kiyomori's becoming a priest for March 29, 1168 in "Heihanki" (TAIRA no Nobumori's diary) reads, 'this year, the shokoku (prime minister) is 51 years old and the nihon (second ranked) is 43 years old...,' and therefore Tokiko must have been born in 1126. As the writer, TAIRA no Nobunori, was Tokiko's uncle, the reliability of this article is quite high. Counting backward from "Kugyo bunin" (a personnel directory of the court nobles), Tokitada must have been born in 1130. However, in the article for March 30, 1189 in "Azuma Kagami" (Mirror of East), it is recorded that, when Yoritomo heard about Tokitada's death, he asked people around him about Tokitada's age, and the reply was 62 year old. According to this reply, Tokitada must have been born in 1128. Tokitada's year of birth cannot be ascertained, but Tokiko was elder to Tokitada. In "Horyakukanki" (a history book of 14th century Japan), it is written that 'Taira no Dainagon Tokitada is the younger brother of Kita no kata, Niidono (the second ranked), of the dajonyudo (prime minister who became a priest))' and, therefore, it seems sure that Tokitada was the younger brother of Tokiko.
In April 1146, he was appointed the position of hikurodo (trainee in the Kurodo-dokoro, or the Imperial Secretariat) at the age of 17 years old and in February the next year, he was appointed the position of rokui kurodo (kurodo (Chamberlain) of the Sixth Rank). During 1148 and the following year, he assumed the position of kebiishi (a police and judicial chief) saemon shojo (junior lieutenant of the Left Division of Outer Palace Guards). In May 1149, he was ennobled and resigned from kurodo and kebiishi. There is nothing noteworthy about Tokitada's official career in his youth. It was normal for a person of the rank of hikurodo to rokui kurodo to finish his life at this level. As his father, Tokinobu, had stopped at goi (Fifth Rank) and his mother's status was also low, Tokitada could not expect promotion to higher rank. Therefore, it is inferred that Tokitada was protected by his elder sister, Tokiko, and her husband, Kiyomori. On September 24, 1154, Tokitada attended a Buddhist religious service for new building for temple and enshrinement of Buddhist image held by Cloistered Emperor Toba, together with Kiyomori, as inshi (officials of Imperial Agency) ("Heihanki").
Supporting Norihito and Exile
In May 1160, after the Heiji War was settled and Kiyomori's influence had remarkably increased, Tokitada was picked out for promotion to kebiishi Uemon Gon no suke (provisional assistant captain of police and judicial chief of the Right Division of Outer Palace Guards). In February of the next year, Kiyomori was installed as Kebiishi no betto (Superintendent of the Imperial Police) and put in charge of maintaining public order in Kyoto, and Tokitada took command in the field under Kiyomori's control. In addition, in October, he was assigned the additional post of Ushoben (Minor Controller of the Right). The Takamune branch of the Taira clan was a family line to work as officials for practical matters, but a large number of benkan who were in charge of office work of the Dajokan (Great Minister of the Council of State) were mainly from another line, offspring of TAIRA no Tokinori, and people from the line to which Tokitada belonged worked mainly as keishi (officials of the agency of imperial family, noble, etc.) of In (retired emperors) and Sekkan-ke (the families which produced regents. The supposed reasons for Tokitada's appointment to benkan were not only backup by Kiyomori but also Tokitada's capability for practical matters. After the Heiji War, while the retired Emperor Goshirakawa and Emperor Nijo keenly confronted each other, on September 30, 1161, Tokitada's younger sister, Shigeko, gave birth to the seventh Imperial Prince (Norihito, later, Emperor Takakura) of Goshirakawa. Soon after that, on October 12, Tokitada was dismissed by Nijo together with TAIRA no Norimori, Kiyomori's younger brother.
According to "Gukansho" (Jottings of a Fool), the cause of this dismissal was 'seriously improper statement.'
Although the contents of their statement are not known, there is a strong possibility that they made a statement about official investiture of their nephew, Norihito, to Crown Prince.
From around this time, Tokitada diverged from Kiyomori's intention and showed independent movements. In July the next year, MINAMOTO no Sukekata, who was an In no kinshin (close aide of Cloistered Emperor Goshirakawa), was dismissed for putting a curse on Nijo at Kamo-sha Shrine, and Tokitada was also sentenced to exile in Izumo Province on August 12 for taking part in this conspiracy. Although Norimori was remitted a short time later, Tokitada's punishment was very heavy and we can infer that the Nijo shinsei (direct administration by Emperor Nijo) group was strongly cautious about Tokitada. In this case, Kiyomori too showed a stance to support Nijo and he did not help Tokitada.
Recall and Promotion to Kugyo (Court Noble)
In August 1165, when Nijo died, Tokitada was called back (October 27). After being restored to his original status in April 1166, he was appointed Sashoben (Second Assistant Controller of the Left) in May, and, in July, he was appointed to three posts concurrently, Uchuben (First Assistant Controller of the Right), kebiishi, Saemon no gon no suke (provisional assistant captain of the Left Division of Outer Palace Guards), and kurodo. On November 11, the official investiture of Imperial Prince Norihito to the Crown Prince, which could not be achieved five years previously, was realized. The next month, Kiyomori was appointed naidaijin (Minister of the Center) and Tokitada was appointed Kurodo no to (Head Chamberlain). This personnel change was appointment as a successor because of the dismissal of FUJIWARA no Tomokata and FUJWARA no Saneie, who were dissatisfied with the appointment of Kiyomori to daijin (Minister) and did not attend the Sechi-e (seasonal court banquets) of Gosechi (annual court ceremony of girls music), but it was quite unusual that one who had started from hikurodo became the Kurodo no to. His rank rose from Shogoinoge (Senior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade) to Jushiinoge (Junior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade) and, in January the next year, he rose to Shoshiinoge (Senior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade) and was appointed Udaiben (Major Controller of the Right) and, on March 11, he was promoted to Sangi (councilor) and Uhyoe no kami (Captain of the Right Division of Middle Palace Guards) to be a court noble.
In March 1168, Imperial Prince Norihito ascended to the throne (Emperor Takakura) and, in April, Shigeko became the Empress Dowager. Shigeko's uncle, Nobunori, was appointed Kurodo no to together with Norimori, and Tokitada was given the rank Jusanmi (Junior Third Rank). Partly because Kiyomori became a priest and superficially retired from politics, Goshirakawa took the initiative in politics after Takakura became Emperor. Tokitada, also, from his standpoint as the elder brother of Shigeko, took actions as part of Goshirakawa's brain trust. On August 14, Tokitada took office as Uemon no kami (Captain of the Right Division of Outer Palace Guards) and Kebiishi no betto; Tokitada was the first person who had experienced positions of jo (Lieutenant) and suke (assistant) and then became betto (chief officer). In September, he was promoted to Gon Chunagon (a provisional vice-councilor of state). In the same month, Tadamasa KAZANIN was appointed Daijo-daijin (Grand minister of state), which post was vacant after the resignation of Kiyomori, and Tokitada attended the ceremony for celebration. After the main temple of Ise-jingu Shrine was burnt down in January 1169, Tokitada was dispatched to Ise as an imperial messenger and noble for reconstruction in February the following year. In May, when Shigeko was given an official letter by Emperor to confer the ingo (title of respect given to close female relatives of the Emperor or a woman of comparable standing) of Kenshunmonin, Tokitada was appointed as nyoin betto (a chief officer serving a retired empress). In November, Yasoshima no matsuri Festival for the new Emperor was held on a grand scale and Tokitada joined the parade as a noble. The government by the retired Emperor Goshirakawa became stable thanks to cooperation by the whole Taira clans and it seemed that the political conditions would also be stabilized.
Direct Petition of Kao and Second Downfall
In December, however, Enryaku-ji Temple suddenly presented a direct petition demanding the exile of FUJIWARA no Narichika, who was an In no Kinshin (the retired Emperor's courtier). This trouble occurred because Masatomo, who was the mokudai (deputy) for Owari Province, the chigyokoku (fiefdom) of Narichika, used violence against a jinnin (low-ranked Shinto priest or worker subordinated to a Shinto shrine) of Hiranosho Manor, Mino Province, which was owned by Enryaku-ji Temple. Goshirakawa had given favorable treatment to Onjo-ji Temple among temples of the Tendai Sect of Buddhism and, toward Enryaku-ji Temple, he applied coercive policy by appointing In no kinshin to the provincial governors, such as suspension or abolishment of manor and regulations against jinnin, and, therefore, potential confrontation between the In and Enryaku-ji Temple had been very likely.
On January 17, a daishu (group of priests) of Enryaku-ji Temple departed from the temple to make direct petition, and, on January 18, Goshirakawa, who received a report that the daishu was ready to come to Kyoto, convened nobles to In no gosho (the retired Emperor's court) to consult about measures and issued a mobilization order to kebiishi and samurai. As the Kebiishi no betto, Tokitada also guarded the In no gosho and the city of Kyoto. However, the daishu burst not into the In no gosho but into the Imperial Palace, whose guard was thinner, and made a great fuss. Under the situation, Tokitada advised to make quick response to either accept the requirement immediately if they ever do so, or dispatch samurai to get rid of the daishu if they would not accept the requirement. In kugegijo (a meeting to form decisions by nobles), opinions against dispatch of troops were in the majority, because there was a risk of destroying the portable shrine, and Shigemori, who should take command of governmental troops, expressed disapproval of sending out the troops in the night, and, therefore, the next day, the nobles decided on the exile of Narichika and confinement of Masatomo.
On January 23 only four days later, however, Narichika was recalled and Tokitada and Nobunori were dismissed by reason of 'soji-fujitsu' (A report to the throne included untrue information) ("Hyakurensho" (History book from the Kamakura period)), and the exile of Tokitada to Izumo Province and Nobunori to Bingo Province was decided. At the same time, Tokizane and Tokiie (Tokitada's sons) and TAIRA no Nobumoto (Nobunori's son) were also dismissed ("Heihanki") and, as a result, members of Dojo Heishi (the Taira clan that was hereditarily allowed to the Court) were forced to resign. As conflict between the In and Enryaku-ji Temple was reignited, Kiyomori, who was worried about instability of the political situation, came to Kyoto on February 11, the next year, samurai gathered in Rokuhara, and the situation became very tense. Because of pressure exerted by Kiyomori, on March 2 Goshirakawa was obliged to decide to dismiss Narichika and recall Tokitada and Nobunori. In this incident, disarray between Goshirakawa and the Taira clan occurred with respect to measures against Enryaku-ji Temple, and it was revealed that the government was not necessarily monolithic. Whereas Narichika was reappointed gon chunagon, Uhyoe no kami, and Kebiishi no betto in April, Tokitada returned to his original position only in January 1171.
Close Aide to Kenshunmonin
In February 1171, the traditional ceremony to mark Emperor Takakura's coming of age was held. Although discord generated between Goshirakawa and Kiyomori had not been dispelled, cooperation between them was indispensable in order to maintain the regime, and the political influence of Kenshunmonin as a coordinator increased. Thanks to the influence of Kenshunmonin as the empress dowager, the Dojo Heishi also recovered its influence. It seems that Tokitada came to keep a certain distance from Goshirakawa and Kiyomori due to his distrust of them based on Tokitada's bitter experiences of being abandoned by Kiyomori at the time of his first downfall and by Goshirakawa at the time of his second downfall, and, after his return to politics, his activities as a close aide of Kenshunmonin became remarkable. One of his daughters became a nyobo (high-ranked court lady) of Kenshunmonin and she was called 'naishi' (a maid of honor to the Empress) (There is every possibility that she was the same person as TAIRA no Noriko, a tenji (a court lady of the first rank) mentioned in the article for June 12, 1191 in "Azuma Kagami" (The Mirror of the East)). Tokitada's son, Tokizane, held the rank of Jugoinojo (Junior Fifth Rank, Upper Grade) given through Kenshunmonin, and Tokitada was reappointed Gon Chunagon on May 22 and allowed taiken (wearing of a sword) on June 1. In the last year, as Munemori and MINAMOTO no Sukekata had become Gon Chunagon, the total number of Chunagon (vice-councilor of state) reached nine for the first time and new case for ten Chunagon began, and Kanezane KUJO criticized it as 'unparalleled in history.' ("Gyokuyo" (Diary of Kanezane KUJO)).
On November 18, Goshirakawa and Kenshunmonin visited Fukuhara and were cordially entertained by Kiyomori. Tokitada followed this imperial visit to Fukuhara together with Sukekata, Narichika, Shigemori, Munemori, and Kanemasa KAZANIN. It is inferred that the marriage of Emperor Takakura and Kiyomori's daughter, TAIRA no Tokuko, was officially agreed upon during this imperial visit. It seems that Kenshunmonin's wish for stabilization of the era of Takakura and her intention to avoid internal separation of the regime played an important role. In March 1172 the following year, Tokiko became a chugu (the second consort of an emperor) and Tokitada assumed office as Gon no daibu (provisional master). In November 1173, Saishoko-in Temple, Kenshunmonin's temple of prayer, whose construction Tokitada had been responsible for, was completed and, in February 1174, Tokitada rose to Junii (Junior Second Rank) given through Kenshunmonin. It is said that, around this time, Tokitada made a statement 'Only members of the Taira family are humans,' praising the prosperity of the Taira family (From 'Kamuro' (Page-Boy Cut), Volume 1 of "Heike Monogatari" (The Tale of the Heike). However, as the Dojo Heishi to which Tokitada belonged was in a position independent from the Bumon Heishi (warrior Taira clan) to which Kiyomori belonged, this statement can also be understood as a message boasting of the rapid progress of the Dojo Heishi. On January 2, 1176, Tokitada became Uemon no kami and was reappointed Kebiishi no betto.
Turmoil in the Regime
In April 1176, a large-scale ceremony to celebrate Goshirakawa's age of 50 years old was held in Hojuji-dono Palace (Hoju-ji Palace); Tokitada attended the ceremony together with other nobles and family members of the Taira clan. In July, however, Kenshunmonin was struck down by an illness, and she died on August 21. Because of Kenshunmonin's death, various problems that had been hidden until then came up to the surface. First, the position of Takakura, who had no successor, became unstable because of non-existence of the empress dowager. On December 2, Goshirakawa's eighth Imperial Prince (later, Cloistered Imperial Prince Doho), who had been a disciple of Cloistered Imperial Prince Shukaku, visited the Imperial Palace being held in FUJIWARA no Takafusa's arms, and on December 11, the ninth Imperial Prince (later, Cloistered Imperial Prince Shojin), who had been fostered by Chikamune, visited the Imperial Palace accompanying Tokitada ("Gyokuyo"), and both of them adopted by Takakura. It is inferred that those Imperial Princes were fostered as spares in the event Takakura could not get any Imperial Prince.
Goshirakawa desired early abdication by Takakura, because if grown-up Takakura would administer affairs of state, Goshirakawa's influence would be remarkably restricted. For Kiyomori, such abdication before the birth of a Imperial Prince from Tokuko could not be allowed. At that time, only a lineal ancestor of an Emperor was allowed to open a cloister government, and, therefore, those Imperial Princes brought in by Tokitada, and so on, must be adopted children of Takakura in order to maintain influence of Takakura; this was a compromise to avoid conflict between Goshirakawa and Kiyomori. However, this served only to carry forward the problem, and conflict between the Taira clan supporting Takakura and the In no kinshin gathering around Goshirakawa became unavoidable.
In May 1177, Enryaku-ji Temple made a direct petition requiring exile of FUJIWARA no Morotaka, who was Kaga no kami (governor of Kaga Province). Morotaka's father was Saiko, who was an In no kinshin, and Goshirakawa assumed a firm attitude. As a retainer of Shigemori, who was defending, shot the portable shrine, the situation became worse and worse. According to the "Heike Monogatari," Tokitada ventured into Enryaku-ji Temple and negotiated a settlement to the situation, and he delivered to the excited daishu a paper on which he wrote 'violence by priests is conduct of a devil to disturb Buddhist training; myoo's restraint against such violence is protection by Zenzei (the well-gone; epithet of Buddha),' and he successfully subsided their anger. As this episode has no supporting information from other materials, it is not known whether or not it actually happened. In reality, this trouble was settled by accepting all requirements by Enryaku-ji Temple; namely, the exile of Morotaka and imprisonment of Shigemori's retainer who had shot the portable shrine.
After that, Goshirakawa forcibly dismissed Myoun, Tendai-zasu (head priest of the Tendai Sect), and while conflict between the In and Enryaku-ji Temple was reignited, the Shishigatani plot occurred. As Saiko and Narichika were killed, it was as if Goshirakawa had lost his arms and legs, and he was obliged to surrender to the Taira clan. As Kiyomori could not take any measure before Takakura would get an Imperial Prince, the situation was stagnated.
Antoku's Birth and Cloister Government by Takakura
On June 18, 1178, Tokitada informed Takakura that Tokuko's pregnancy was confirmed. On September, as FUJIWARA no Takasue resigned from Chugu daibu (Master of the Consort's Household because of his daughter's death, Tokitada was promoted to daibu on September 16. On December 29, Tokuko gave birth to a Imperial Prince (Tokihito, later, Emperor Antoku) and Tokitada's wife, Ryoko, became the wet nurse of the Imperial Prince. Kiyomori urged Goshirakawa to make the Imperial Prince the Crown Prince and, already in January, the ceremony of instituting the Crown Prince was held. The togu no fu (an official in charge of education of the Crown Prince) was the sadaijin (minister of the left), FUJIWARA no Tsunemune, and in the Togubo (Crown Prince's Quarters), the daibu was Munemori, the gon no daibu Kanemasa, the suke Shigehira, and the gon no suke Koremori; In no kinshin was excluded.
Furthermore, in order to separate Motofusa MATSUDONO, kanpaku who had been filled with hatred against the Taira clan because they had taken from him fiefdom of the sekkanke (clan eligible for regents), from Goshirakawa and entice him to Kiyomori's side, Kiyomori tried to include the wife of Motofusa (a daughter of Tadamasa) as a wet nurse for the Crown Prince. Tokitada opposed this attempt, insisting that he had never heard of any case where the wife of a regent became a wet nurse (Article for February 15 in "Gyokuyo"; nonetheless, in March, the wife of Motofusa became a wet nurse of Antoku). It seems that Tokitada did not want to bring the wife of the kanpaku close to the Crown Prince, since Tokitada's wife was a wet nurse; this shows that Tokitada did not necessarily act in accordance with Kiyomori's intention.
On February 22, 1179, Tokitada was conferred Shonii (Senior Second Rank), and, on March 6, was appointed Kebiishi no betto for the third time, which was unprecedented. Tadachika, his predecessor, was surprised and recorded 'extremely rare case' ("Sankaiki" (diary by Tadachika NAKAYAMA)), and Kanezane KUJO was bitter with blame, saying 'This is crazy. It cannot be an act of a subject.' ("Gyokuyo"). It is inferred that Tokitada, who had sufficient experience, was chosen for reformation of the Kebiishicho (Office of Police and Judicial Chief), because kebiishi, Nobufusa KOREMUNE, TAIRA no Sukeyuki, and TAIRA no Yasuyori took part in the Shishigatani Incident.
After Moriko's death in July and Shigemori's death in August, Goshirakawa seized Moriko's manor and Shigemori's chigyo-koku (provincial fiefdom) and, neglecting Motomichi KONOE, whom Kiyomori supported, appointed Moroie MATSUDONO, a son of Motofusa, a Gon Chunagon. Kiyomori, who was angered by this, carried out a coup on December 21, and mass dismissal of anti-Taira nobles and In no kinshin was conducted (Coup of the Third Year of Jisho). From Dojo Heishi, Chikamune, Tokiie, and TAIRA no Motochika were dismissed, and Dojo Heishi was seriously damaged. We can figure out that Dojo Heishi, which had been united when Kenshunmonin was alive, was also disunited. From the Kebiishicho, which was under Tokitada's control, OE no Tonari, TAIRA no Sukeyuki, and FUJIWARA no Nobumori were dismissed and FUJIARA no Kagetaka, Tadatsuna, Tomozane, and MINOMOTO no Mitsunaga were newly appointed to fill vacancies.
Goshirakawa was confined in Toba-dono palace and Takakura assumed responsibility for affairs of state. In March of the next year, as Imperial Prince Tokihito became the emperor, the In no cho was established and FUJIWARA no Takasue took office as the Shitsuji-betto (chief officer). Tokitada also assisted Takakura, who was inexperienced in affairs of state, as a member of the betto from the standpoint of Takakura's uncle and Antoku's menoto (a foster father). Although cloister government by Takakura was commenced, its legitimacy was doubtful, because it was formed as a result of a coup and it was largely supported by the military power of the Taira clan. In addition, according to strong request by Kiyomori, Takakura made a pilgrimage to Itsukushima-jinja Shrine soon after his abdication, and this stirred up a sense of crisis on the part of traditional temples such as Enryaku-ji Temple, Onjo-ji Temple, and Kofuku-ji Temple. Under the prevailing unsettled conditions, Prince Mochihito raised an army in June. Hachijoin, who was the Emperor Nijo's junbo (acting mother of the emperor), supported Mochihito, and Onjo-ji Temple, which was closely connected to Goshirakawa, and Kofuku-ji Temple, which was against exile of the kanpaku, also kept in step with him; this became a great threat to a new regime. After the rebellion was suppressed, Kiyomori forcibly and suddenly carried out an imperial visit to Fukuhara.
Imperial Visit to Fukuhara and Intensified Rebellion
On July 3, Emperor Antoku, retired Emperor Takakura, and Cloistered Emperor Goshirakawa started toward Fukuhara. They were accompanied by the family members of the Taira clan, pro-Taira nobles, and governmental officials responsible for practical matters, and Tokitada also joined the parade of the imperial visit. After their arrival in Fukuhara, they discussed transfer of the capital and it was decided that Wada would be the candidate for constructing a new capital. However, as the space was too narrow, the plan returned to where it was at the beginning, and Koyano and Inamino were proposed as alternatives, but both plans came to nothing in July. In the end, it was settled that Fukuhara would be made the temporary imperial palace, but, because of insufficient preparation and confusion, opinions arose against the transfer of the capital. As Takakura was not in good condition physically, Tokitada and Takasue proposed that Kiyomori return the capital to Kyoto, but Kiyomori refused flatly (Article for September 10 in "Gyokuyo").
Takakura reluctantly issued an order to construct the imperial palace, and Tokitada seems to have been assigned a role to suppress opinion groups who were against the transfer of the capital and took such forcible action as to suppress differing views when the problem of the directional taboo was raised in a meeting (Article for September 27 in "Gyokuyo"). As Tokitada had no residence in Fukuhara, he was newly provided with land. On September 23, he checked the city planning map of Fukuhara with Tadachika, who was his son-in-law, and exchanged views on fixtures of the residence on November 4 (Article for the same day in "Sankaiki"). As the imperial palace and residences of nobles were gradually prepared and improved, the transfer of the capital seemed to have started along the right lines, but, in August, rebellions occurred frequently in various places in the country. On November 17, as the punitive force was severely defeated in the Battle of Fujigawa, opinions to return the capital to Kyoto were reignited.
At first, Munemori proposed to return the capital to Kyoto and had violent quarrel with Kiyomori (Article for November 30 in "Gyokuyo"),
Under the situation where Provinces in Tokaido had been falling under the control of rebels, Tokitada made a proposal on December 1 to give a senji (a informal Imperial letter) to Mino-Genji (Minamoto clan) to get them over in order to make Mino Province the defensive line against eastern Provinces (Article for the same day in "Kikki"). MINAMOTO no Mitsunaga from Mino-Genji was a kebiishi and his relationship with Tokitada was that of superior and subordinate, and, therefore, Tokitada was confident that he could win Mino-Genji over. However, Kiyomori ignored Tokitada's proposal and dispatched his private retainers (elite troops belonging directly to Kiyomori) to subjugate Mino-Genji (Article for December 7 in "Gyokuyo"). As a result, Mino Province fell into condition of disturbance and the disasters of war spread to Omi Province. Enryaku-ji Temple also took a coercive attitude, saying 'If the capital is not returned to Kyoto, we will usurp Yamashiro Province and Omi Province.' (Article for November 16 in "Gyokuyo") and the situation was unpredictable.
On December 7, Kiyomori agreed to return the capital to Kyoto, but Tokitada showed disapproval (Article for the same day in "Kikki" and article of December 11 in "Gyokuyo"). As the battle with rebels in Omi Province had intensified, it is inferred that Tokitada judged that it was dangerous to return to Kyoto unless certain measures were taken and security was ensured. It seems that Tokitada reasoned that Kiyomori's dictatorial attitude and hardline ignoring of Takakura's intention was accelerating deterioration of the situation, and intended to hold kuge-gijo after the return of the government to the former capital in order to establish countermeasures (Article for December 16 in "Kikki"). On December 17, following Takakura's order, Tokitada instructed through the Tendai-zasu Myoun, manor owned by Hiyoshi-sha Shrine and Enryaku-ji Temple, to defend against and annihilate rebels in exchange for the return of the government to the former capital. After an agreement with Enryaku-ji Temple was reached, the return of the government to the former capital was carried out on December 18, the next day.
On December 25, kuge-gijo was held with respect to rebellion in the eastern areas. Sanetada TOKUDAIJI's opinion, 'If rebels in Omi Province are subjugated, rebels in Mino Province, and so on,. would also surrender,' was accepted by the majority, and full-scale action was taken to liquidate the rebels (Article for the same day in "Sankaiki"). Between December in 1180 and January in 1181 (December, 1180 in old lunar calendar), various countermeasures were taken against rebellion, such as delivery of military force by nobles (Article for January 7 in "Gyokuyo") and collection of provisions from various Provinces (Article for January 4 in "Sankaiki"), and Tokitada was deeply involved in the planning and execution of such policies. Because of those measures and counterattack by the troops of the Taira clan, rebellion in and around the capital was suppressed.
Reopening Cloister Government by Goshirakawa
Takakura's illness was quite serious at the time of the return of the government to the former capital and he died on February 6, 1181 the following year at the age of 21. As a close aide, Tokitada was give sofuku (white clothes). As Tokitada had established his political position based on Takakura's authority, his early death was a heavy blow to Tokitada. With respect to the political system after Takakura's death, as infant Antoku could not assume affairs of state, there was no alternative to cloister government by Goshirakawa. Under this situation, Tokitada forcibly caused chugu Tokuko to inherit manor owned by Takamatsuin under the excuse that it was Takakura's will. Reportedly, Goshirakawa openly showed displeasure against that measure (Article for February 26 in "Gyokuyo").
As Tokitada had been handling practical matters as the betto of the Takakurain no cho (Retired Emperor Takakura's Office), he could take such a measure. It is inferred that Tokitada's intention was to prevent an increase in Goshirakawa's political influence that would become inevitable after Takakura's death and, at the same time, to indirectly maintain his own influence by consolidating an economic foundation of Tokuko. Tokitada was the Chugu daibu and, after Tokuko was issued an Imperial letter to permit use of "In" title on January 8, 1182, he continued to be in a position to support Tokuko as the Kenreimonin no Betto (chief officer serving to Kenreimonin).
Kiyomori did not just look on with folded arms at the reopening of the cloister government by Goshirakawa, and had been taking various measures in quick succession, including dismissal of the In no kinshin and institution of kinai-sokanshiki (officer to keep peace in and around the capital), but he died on March 27, 1181. Kiyomori's successor, Munemori, showed his stance to obey Goshirakawa by agreeing to reopening of the cloister government, but, on the other hand, he did not give up definite military and police authority, which was the basis of existence of the Taira clan, and continued subjugation of the eastern Provinces, refusing Goshirakawa's appeasement policy. Because of this, a deep rift developed between Goshirakawa and Munemori. There was a conflict between Goshirakawa and the Taira clan that could not be dissolved, but in the past Kenshunmonin has worked as a coordinator. We consider that Tokitada expected Tokuko, who was the empress dowager, to play a role similar to that of Kenshunmonin, and aimed at revival of the political system during 1171 and 1174.
However, Tokuko was Goshirakawa's adopted daughter and her position was weak from the beginning. In addition, as Tokuko's character was not to positively show her own will, it was difficult to ask her to function as Kenshunmonin had. On top of this, the situation had also changed drastically. In various places, rebellions were becoming more and more intense and, after experiencing suspension of cloister government and confinement, Goshirakawa had not only dissatisfaction against the Taira clan but even hatred. Goshirakawa had already discarded the Taira clan and independently commenced peace negotiation with Yoritomo (Article for September 18, 1181 in "Gyokuyo"). Tokitada resigned as Kebiishi no betto to mourn his mother's death on June. Tokitada's political position was gradually weakened.
In May, Goshirakawa transferred Antoku from Yorimori's residence in Hachijo to Kanin-dairi Palace. Michiko KONOE (Motozane's daughter) had been chosen for Antoku's junbo (title usually used when giving an Imperial Princess the title of empress or in-go) with backup from Kiyomori, but, in September 1182, Goshirakawa made the first Imperial Princess, Ryoshi, the Empress by sending her as the junbo. These were measures to separate Antoku from the Taira clan and Goshirakawa's influence had surely been increased. However, nobles represented by Kanezane KUJO took a wait-and-see attitude, and, therefore, Goshirakawa could not take the lead at once. As time passed, the relationship between Goshirakawa and the Taira clan entered into a kind of balanced condition.
However, the quiet was short-lived. In the military aspect, after victory in the Battle of Sunomatagawa, it was all the Taira clan could do to maintain the front lines, partially because of influence of the Great Famine of Yowa, and the Taira regime, which had enemies both inside and outside, gradually declined. In February 1183, Tokitada was promoted to Gon Dainagon (a provisional chief councilor of state), but the breakdown of the regime impended.
Family's Flight from the Capital
In May 1183, the Taira clan's punitive force for the Hokuriku region was defeated by Yoshinaka KISO (the battle of the Kurikara Pass), and the military balance that had been maintained collapsed. On August 18, as the troop of Yoshinaka reached the Enryaku-ji Temple, a meeting was held to discuss countermeasures. On August 20, Antoku visited In no gosho, Hojuji-dono, and Tokitada attended. Munemori, who gave up the defense of Kyoto, was preparing to go down to the western area, taking Goshirakawa, Antoku, and so on, along in order to recover force. On August 21, aware of the Taira clan's intention, Goshirakawa escaped from Hojuji-dono to Mt. Hiei before dawn. Munemori was obliged to leave the capital, taking along only Antoku and Ninomiya (Takakura's second son, Imperial Prince Morisada, later Gotakakurain). Tokitada went to Kanin-dairi Palace and took out Naishidokoro (also known as shinkyo (Yata mirror, or sacred mirror), and then joined the party in its flight from the capital of Kyoto. Nobles gathered one after another around Goshirakawa, and Motomichi, a Sessho (regent) who was the leader of the pro-Taira group and Yorimori, a member of the Taira clan, remained in Kyoto. The only nobles who followed Antoku and the Taira clan were Tokitada, Tokizane, Nobumoto, and FUJIWARA no Koretada.
On August 23, Goshirakawa returned to Kyoto and, in a meeting held the next day, it was decided to track down and dispose of the Taira clan. On September 1, family members of the Taira clan were dismissed altogether, but Goshirakawa postponed dismissal of Tokitada in order to negotiate for return of Antoku to Kyoto and the return of sacred treasures. It seems that the negotiation failed, and Tokitada was dismissed on September 11. A bright spot in the tragedy for Goshirakawa was that the Taira clan fled taking Antoku along, and, after securing political initiative by appointing In no kinshin to official posts and Zuryo (the head of the provincial governors) which had been occupied by the Taira clan, Goshirakawa made Shinomiya (Takakura's fourth imperial prince, Takashige, later the Emperor Gotoba), who stayed in the capital, the emperor. Hearing this information, members of the Taira clan regretted, 'We should have taken Sannomiya and Shinomiya along,' but Tokitada looked at this coolly and said 'In that case, the imperial prince of Prince Mochihito (Hokuriku no miya) supported by Yoshinaka would have become the emperor instead' ("Heike Monogatari").
On March 27, 1184, the Taira clan suffered a crushing defeat in the Battle of Ichinotani. In the Chapter 'Ukebumi' (reply) of "Heike Monogatari," there is an episode that, after this battle, Tokitada drove back a messenger, Hanakata of Otsubo no Meshitsugi (person who works in Meshitsugi-dokoro, the department of managing daily affairs of In), had sent by Goshirakawa to require return of sacred treasures, after branding 'Namikata' on his face. Although Hanakata is mentioned in narration books, this episode is not mentioned in Enkyohon (books copied in Enkyo era), which is believed to be an old form of the yomihon (literally, reading books, an Edo period woodblock printed novel prevalent from the mid to late Edo period that focused on serious and penetrating studies of human affairs), and his status was too low for In's messenger; therefore this episode could be mere fiction. In the article for August 20, 1184 in "Sankaiki," it is mentioned that In's messenger was branded on his face by the Taira clan, although it is not mentioned who did this, and therefore, cruel action to In's messenger by the Taira clan must be a fact. It was said that causes of defeat in the Battle of Ichinotani include a false proposal for peace by Goshirakawa and surprise attack by the Minamoto clan (Article for April 9 in "Azuma Kagami") and therefore, the Taira clan's resentment against Goshirakawa was profound. The Taira clan could not recover from the damage from this defeat and was annihilated in the Battle of Dan no ura on May 2, 1185 the following year.
Approach to Yoshitsune
Tokitada was taken prisoner in Dan no ura and entered Kyoto on June 3. Tokitada asked for mitigation of punishment by reason of his merits of protecting Yasakani no magatama (comma-shaped jewel) and Yata no Kagami (Article for June 9 in "Gyokuyo") and tried to obtain protection by making his daughter marry Yoshitsune. In the "Heike Monogatari," it is said that the purpose of the marriage of Tokitada's daughter with Yoshitsune was to steal a secret document, but the reason why Yoshitsune agreed is not clear.
There is a view that, because Yoshitsune was responsible for public security in Kyoto as a kebiishi, Yoshitsune wanted to inherit the position of Tokitada, who had served as the Kebiishi no betto and had held police authority for a long period of time
On June 26, punishment for prisoners was determined and nine persons were sentenced to exile: Tokitada, Tokizane, Nobumoto, Tadaaki, Yoshihiro, Zenshin, Chukai, Noen, and Gyomei. Although it is said that punishment against Tokitada was reduced by one rank from death because of his merits of having protected the sacred mirror (Article in June 22 for "Azuma Kagami"), it is questionable if the death sentence was really intended, because Tokitada was not a samurai but a civilian.
Execution of exile was planned to take place after Yoshitsune, who visited Kamakura, returned to Kyoto, but it seems that discord between Yoshitsune and Yoritomo was generated around this time. According to "Gukansho," 'After Yoshitsune visited Kamakura in Kanto region and returned to Kyoto, an evil intention came out,' and Yoshitsune gradually deviated from regulation by Kamakura. In mid-September, seven of the nine persons, excluding Tokitada and Tokizane, were transferred to the place of exile; Tokitada and Tokizane remained in Kyoto under the protection of Yoshitsune. Yoritomo had distrust for Yoshitsune's behavior and dispatched Kagesue KAJIWARA to blame Yoshitsune for Tokitada and Tokizane remaining in Kyoto, and proposed that the Imperial Court quickly execute exile (Article for October 4 in "Azuma Kagami"). Tokitada, aware that the situation was worsening, moved to the destination of exile, Noto Province, on October 25 (Article for the same day in "Sankaiki"). According to the "Heike Monogatari," he visited Kenreimonin to say farewell before he left the capital and, therefore, it seems that he was allowed a certain level of freedom of activities.
On November 13, Yoshitsune asked Goshirakawa to give a senji to track down and dispose of Yoritomo. Goshirakawa hesitated, but, in accordance with Tsunemune's, the sadaijin's, opinion, he issued a senji to track down and dispose of Yoritomo on November 18. However, not many samurai followed Yoshitsune, and he could not collect warriors as he wished. On December 3, Yoshitsune left the capital intending to recover, but he brought about his own destruction. Tokizane went along with Yoshitsune, but he was caught and banished to Kazusa Province in February 1185.
At that time, the Noto no kami (Lord of Noto Province) was FUJIWARA no Akiie, who was a favorite retainer of Motofusa, and Noto Province was Motofusa's chigyokoku. Motofusa was anti-Taira; his legal wife was a sister of Kanemasa KAZANIN, and FUJIWARA no Takafusa was his cousin. Thanks to influence from those pro-Taira nobles, it seems that Tokitada was treated politely there. Also, there is no trace of pressure on Tokitada's family left in the capital. Tokitada's residence was once forfeited and treated as governmental property forfeited from the Taira clan, but Yoritomo allowed Tokitada's family to live as it had. Tokitada's daughter, Noriko, became the tenji for the Emperor Gotoba. Later, in April 1195, when Yoritomo visited Kyoto, Tokitada's residence was used as the guesthouse for priests of Wakamiya Shrine. Muneko and Sochi no tenji-ni (also known as Noriko) presented a petition to Yoritomo in Kamakura; paying attention to Gotoba and Tsunefusa YOSHIDA, Yoritomo suspended seizure and returned the residence to Tokitada's bereaved family members (Article for September 1, 1195 in "Azuma Kagami").
On March 19, 1189, Tokitada ended his life in his place of exile in Noto Province. His posterity was called the Tokikuni family, and they enjoyed their social standing. Close to the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, Nariyasu MAEDA, Lord of Kaga Domain and Chunagon (vice-councilor of state), visited the Kamitokikuni family (branch family of the Tokikuni family). Tokitada's grave is located by the wayside of the National Road Route 249 in Norisada, Otani-machi, Suzu City, Ishikawa Prefecture. In June the same year, while Yoritomo asked for a senji to track down and dispose of the Oshu Fujiwara clan, Goshirakawa proposed pardon of Tokizane and other persons who had been exiled. Yoritomo accepted this request, and Tokizane and other persons returned to Kyoto.
With respect to Tokitada, Kanezane KUJO criticized, 'Tokitada is a crazy person' (Article for August 21, 1176 in "Gyokuyo") and Jien criticized, 'He acted tactfully, and he was exiled repeatedly' ("Gukansho"). However, as Kanezane and Jien often criticized upstart close aides of the In no kinshin, we cannot accept those descriptions at face value. When Yoritomo heard about Tokitada's death, he commented, 'As he was a clever vassal, he assisted in various matters in the era of the late emperor and in the Taira era. It is a pity for the imperial palace even today' (Article for March 30, 1189 in "Azuma Kagami").
In the "Heike Monogatari," it is reported that Tokitada received senji to appoint him to Kebiishi no betto three times and exercised his ability for maintenance of public security in Kyoto, and he gained the nickname 'aku betto' (strict kebiishi betto). As this episode is mentioned only in books of the narration books and not in books in the yomihon, it is not certain that Tokitada was actually called so, but in the articles for July 2, 1179, in "Hyakurensho" and "Sankaiki," it is recorded that he cut off the right hands of 12 robbers. It can be inferred that the reason why he, as a civilian, could carry out strict punishment was his experiences in serving as a jo and suke to arrest offenders and to carry out affairs of trials. He was of such strong nerve and had a violent temper on one hand, and on the other hand had coolheadedness to consider that the end justifies the means, as shown by, for example, his attempt to maintain his position by making his daughter marry Yoshitsune. It seems that this was formed through his experiences from being born into a family of officials responsible for practical matters and having survived downfalls and difficulties in politics.
Tokitada had established wide personal relationships in the political world by making his son, Tokizane, marry the daughter of Tsunefusa YOSHIDA, an official in charge of practical matters and making his daughter marry Tadachika NAKAYAMA, a noble who was well versed in the ancient practices of the court and military. Politically, he often kept common pace with FUJIWARA no Takasue and Michichika TSUCHIMIKADO, but we cannot say that he was close to Kiyomori or Goshirakawa, and he sometimes opposed their intentions. It is inferred that this was because Tokitada was from the Dojo Heishi family and he gave first priority to Kenshunmonin and Takakura. Judging from his rise from hikurodo to Gon Dainagon, he was a rare person as a statesman, and the significance of his existence was quite large.
Regarding Tokitada's Mother
In the article for Tokitada in "Kugyo bunin," there is no description of Tokitada's mother and, in the article for Chikamune, his younger brother, it is written 'mother was same as that for Tokitada.'
Also, in the article for Tokitada in "Sonpi Bunmyaku" (a text compiled in the fourteenth century that records the lineages of the aristocracy), there is no description of his mother and, in the article for Chikamune, it is written 'mother, daughter of FUJIWARA no Ienori, Daizen no Daibu (a chief officer of the Division of Meals).'
In the article for Tokiko, which is placed adjacent to the article for Chikamune, it is written, 'mother, the same.'
In the article for FUJIWARA no Michitaka linage, daughter of FUJIWARA no Ienori in "Sonpi Bunmyaku," it is written 'nyobo (a court lady) for Bifukumonin, shosho no tsubone (the office of minor captain), mother of TAIRA no Chikamune.'
However, in the article for daughter of FUJIWARA no Mototaka (Ienori's son) also, there exists a description, 'nyobo for Bifukumonin, shosho no tsubone (the office of minor captain), mother of TAIRA no Chikamune.'
On the other hand, in the article for Kanshu-ji linage, Noen (FUJIWARA no Akinori's son), it is written, 'Mother, a court lady, a hashita mono for Empress Dowager Nijo, mother of Dainagon Tokitada and Junii Tokiko.'
Such confusion and inconsistency is found in articles of "Kugyo bunin" and "Sonpi Bunmyaku."
First of all, it is not clear if Chikamune's mother 'nyobo of Bifukumonin, shosho no tsubone' was Ienori's daughter or Mototaka's daughter. On this point, it seems appropriate to judge that she was Mototaka's (born in 1075) daughter, because it is not logical from a chronological point of view that Ienori's (born in 1048) daughter served as a nyobo for Bifukumonin (born in 1117) and gave birth to Chikamune (born in 1144).
Next, there is a problem of whether or not Noen's mother, 'a hashita mono to court lady, Nijo omiya' was the same as Chikamune's mother, FUJIWARA no Mototaka's daughter. As the status of hashita mono is inferred to be between nyobo and Zoshime (lower class maid), it seems not proper to consider that a daughter of Mototaka, who became a noble, was a hashita mono. Furthermore, if the mother of Tokitada and Tokiko was the same person as Chikamune's mother, it is not clear why only Chikamune is mentioned in the article for daughter of Mototaka and the names Tokitada and Tokiko do not appear. Because of the difference in age of Tokitada and Tokiko on one hand and Chikamune on the other, there is a high possibility that the mother of Tokitada and Tokiko was not Chikamune's mother.
Record of Office and Rank
1146 (17 years old)
May 5: Hikurodo
1147 (18 years old)
February 15: Kurodo
May 19: Daigaku-ryo (Bureau of Education under the ritsuryo system)
December 15: Appointed Hyoe-fu (Ministry of Middle Palace Guards)
January 21, 1148 (December 21, 1147 in old lunar calendar): Appointed Emon-fu (Ministry of Outer Palace Guards)
1148 (19 years old)
February 26: Appointed to additional post of Kebiishi
1149 (20 years old)
May 16: Conferred Jugoinoge (Junior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade).
1157 (28 years old)
October 20: Appointed Hyobu sho (Ministry of Military)
1158 (29 years old)
December 25: Promoted to Jugoinojo (Junior Fifth Rank, Upper Grade). Retained his position as Hyobu gonno-shobu(Assistant Minister of the Ministry of War).
1159 (30 years old)
July 19: Gyobu sho (Ministry of Justice)
1160 (31 years old)
May 17: Uemon Gon no suke
November 9: Benkan, concurrently
1161 (32 years old)
May 4: Rose to Shogoinoge (Senior Fifth Rank, Lower Grade)
Retained his positions as kebiishi, Ushoben, and Uemon Gon no suke.
October 12: Dismissed
1162 (33 years old)
August 12: Exiled to Izumo Province
1165 (36 years old)
October 27: Recalled from Izumo Province
1166 (37 years old)
May 5: Returned to Shogoinoge
May 14: Sashoben
July 11: Uchuben
Assigned additional post of Saemon Gon no suke.
July 13: Kebiishi, concurrently
July 24: Kurodo, concurrently
August 16: Assigned additional post of Shuri sagujo shi (Secretary of the left Office of Palace Repairs). September 30: Rose to Jushiinoge (Junior Fourth Rank, Upper Grade). Retained his positions as Shuri sagujo shi, kebiishi, Uchuben, and Saemon no gon no suke.
December 4: Rose to Jushiinojo (Junior Fourth Rank, Upper Grade). Retained his positions as Shuri sagujo shi, kebiishi, Uchuben, and Saemon no gon no suke.
December 17: Appointed Kurodo no to
1167 (38 years old)
February 3: Rose to Shoshiinoge (Senior Fourth Rank, Lower Grade). Retained his position as Kurodo no to.
1168 (39 years old)
February 28: Assigned additional post as Noto no Gon no kami (Provisional Governor of Noto Province)
April 4: Rose to Jusanmi
1169 (40 years old)
January 23, 1170 (December 28, 1169 in old lunar calendar): Dismissed.
Exiled to Izumo Province
1170 (41 years old)
March 2: Recalled from Izumo Province
January 22, 1171 (December 8 in old lunar calendar): Returned to Shosanmi
1171 (42 years old)
June 3: Reappointed Gon Chunagon
1172 (43 years old)
March 13: Assigned additional post of Chugu Gon no daibu (provisional master of the Consort's Household).
1175 (46 years old)
January 2, 1176 (November 12, 1175 in old lunar calendar): Appointed Kebiishi no betto (second time) and Uemon no kami, concurrently
1176 (47 years old)
January 16, 1177 (December 8, 1176 in old lunar calendar): Resigned as Kebiishi no betto.
1177 (48 years old)
March 3: Appointed Saemon no kami (captain of the Left Division of Outer Palace Guards) and Chugu Gon no daibu, concurrently
Reassigned as Uemon no kami
1178 (49 years old)
September 16: Assigned additional post of Chugu daibu
Reassigned as Chugu Gon no daibu
March 6: Appointed Kebiishi no betto (third time)
1180 (51 years old)
March 29: Appointed additional post of betto of Shinin (retired Emperor Takakura's office)
1181 (52 years old)
January 8, 1182 (November 25 in old lunar calendar): Resigned as Chugu daibu.
Reassigned as Kenreimonin no Betto
1182 (53 years old)
November 7: Reassigned as Chunagon.
Assigned additional post of Saemon no kami
1183 (54 years old)
February 23: Appointed Dainagon
September 11: Dismissed
The following story is included in the engi (writing about the history) of Onmyo-ji Temple on Mt. Ukai in Ichibe, Ishiwa-cho, Fuefuki City, Yamanashi Prefectureand a folk tale of the Isawa region.
"In the late Heian period, an old cormorant fisherman called Kansaku, who fished with cormorants in the Fuefuki-gawa River where fishing was prohibited by the Lord, who prohibited killing, was sentenced to death, rolled up in a bamboo mat, and sank in the river. Soon later, an apparition of Kansaku appeared; people of the village were at a total loss, and Nichiren and his disciple Nichiro, who happened to pass by, offered a memorial service. The two priests wrote over 69,380 characters of Hoke-kyo Sutra (the Lotus Sutra) on the pebbles in the river beach, one character on each pebble, threw them into the river, and erected a tower for repose of the Kansaku's soul; subsequently, the apparition stopped coming out. On this occasion, Nichiro built a thatched cottage, which later became Onmyo-ji Temple on Mt. Ukai." This tale was dramatized by Zeami into a Noh play and it is known by its title "Ukai" (cormorant fishing); in this temple and in the local society there is maintained a legend that the cormorant fisherman 'Kansaku' was Tokitada who had escaped from his place of exile, Noto Province, came to this place as a drifter, and lived as a fisherman.
As described above, however, Tokitada died in Noto Province and his descendants still live there. Furthermore, because it would be unreasonable to accept this legend as a true story, it is reasonable to take this as a legend or old tale.
It is not known why Tokitada, who had no connection to Kai Province, was connected to the legend of Kai Province.
Films and TV Plays in which Tokitada has Appeared
"Shin Heike Monogatari" (the New Tale of the Taira family): A film; produced by Daiei in 1955, directed by Kenji MIZOGUCHI, starring Naritoshi HAYASHI. "Yoshitsune MINAMOTO": NHK's annual, year-long historical fiction television series drama; broadcasted in 1966, starring Ichiro SHIMIZU (an actor). "Shin Heike monogatari": NHK's annual, year-long historical fiction television series drama; broadcasted in 1972, starring Baijaku NAKAMURA in first half episode and Tsutomu YAMAZAKI in the latter. "Kusa Moeru"(The Grass it burns): NHK's annual, year-long historical fiction television series drama, broadcasted in 1979, starring Bin MORITSUKA. "Yoshitsune": NHK's annual, year-long historical fiction television series drama, broadcasted in 2005, starring Goro OHASHI.