Shinohara Tainoshin (篠原泰之進)
Tainoshin SHINOHARA (December 22, 1828 - June 13, 1911) was a loyalist in the late Edo period. He was a member of Shinsengumi, and later became the Goryo-eji (guards of Imperial mausoleums), also known as the Kodaiji-to Party. His childhood name was Taisuke, and later he changed his name to Yuhei SHINOHARA and Kawachi HATA. After the Meiji Restoration, he changed his name to Shigechika HATA.
He was born as the first son of Gensuke SHINOHARA, a wealthy farmer and mason in Takami Village in Ikuha Domain, Chikugo Province. Since childhood, he liked military arts, and learned the art of spearmanship and swordsmanship from Hyoemon MORI of the Kurume Domain and a grand master of Taneda Hozoin-ryu Sojutsu School of spearmanship. In 1845, he learned jujutsu (classical Japanese martial art, usually referring to fighting without a weapon) from Gorobe SHIMOSAKA, a grand master of Ryoi Shinto-ryu School.
In 1852, he became chugen (a rank below common soldier) for Ukon ARIMA, Karo (chief retainer), after serving Ichinoshin OGURA, a feudal retainer. In 1858, he went to Edo to accompany Arima to reside on duty in Edo, and learned Hokushin Itto-ryu. Influenced by the Sakuradamongai Incident, he later stayed in Mito with aspirations for Sonno Joi (19th century slogan advocating reverence for the Emperor and the expulsion of foreigners). In 1861, after hiding in the residence of Hikosuke TOTSUKA, a grand master of Yoshinko-ryu School in Edo, he was influenced by dai joi ron (the idea of putting priority on internal unification and gaining power to compete with foreign countries even by means of foreign trade) while staying with Shigekatsu KUBOTA (a grand master of Kobusho jujutsu), hatamoto (direct retainers of the Edo bakufu). The following year, in 1862, he traveled around provinces after interacting with supporters of the sonjo doctrine (restoring the Emperor to the power and expelling the barbarians) in Osaka and Kyoto. In 1863, he was employed by the Kanagawa Magistrate's office to guard foreign settlement in Yokohama City. Around this time, he kept company with Takeo HATTORI, Washio KANO and Shimenosuke SANO. In October of the same year, he hid in Edo because he caused an assault case where three Englishmen breaking into the customs were tied and left on the seashore. Around this time, he kept company with Kashitaro ITO.
In October 1864, seven members in total including Ito and Mikisaburo SUZUKI went up to Kyoto to join Shinsengumi. Tainoshin joined Shinsengumi in 1865 and then served as Shoshi shirabeyaku ken kansatsu (Shinsengumi's organizational post for investigating movements of the opponents and keeping the Shinsengumi members under control) and a grand master of jujutsu. Treated preferentially by Isami KONDO and Ito, he went down to Hiroshima City as one of jinmonshi (envoy for interrogation) after the Choshu Conquest in 1866. In March 1867, he left Shinsengumi due to the establishment of the Goryo-eji. Around this time, he named himself as Kawachi HATA. He was sheltered in the residence of Satsuma Domain after the Abura-no-koji Incident, and the remnants of the Goryo-eji including Shinohara attacked Kondo on Fushimi-kaido Road on December 18. He fought as a member of the Satsuma army in the Battle of Toba-Fushimi in 1868. He was appointed to a sergeant and gained fame on the battlefields in Aizu and Echigo after imprisoned for joining the Sekihotai Army in the Boshin War.
He changed his name to Shigechika HATA after the Meiji Restoration. For his distinguished war services, he received the permanent position of warrior class, 250 ryo (unit of currency) as reward grants, and Hatchinin fuchi (the equivalent of an annual eight-man rice stipend) on a permanent basis. He served as danjodai shojunsatsu (a junior circuit inspector in Board of Censors) in 1869 and an inspector of the Mint of Ministry of the Treasury in 1872. He later changed his career to a businessperson, but did not succeed. In his later years, he became a Christian. He died in Aoyama, Tokyo, in 1911. He was 84 years old.
According to the novel "Shinsengumi Keppuroku (Record of Shinsengumi Bloodshed)" written by Ryotaro SHIBA, the cause of his death was inflammation of the middle ear, and his habit of washing his ears out with water worked negatively (This is a fiction originated by Kan SHIMOZAWA). Actually, he died a natural and peaceful death. According to the wife of his eldest son, he did not have the habit of washing his ears and had never had ear disorders throughout his life.
The "Hata Shigechika Nikki (the Diary of Shigechika HATA)" is not really a diary, but a memoir written by himself in the final year of Meiji period.
The notebook left by Shinohara shows a view that the Goryo-eji had been studying English. Shinohara was enthusiastic about English education for his son, Yasuchika. Yasuchika later became an architect, and when he joined the construction of the Imperial Hotel, he gained the favor of Frank Lloyd Wright, who was the designer of the hotel. Yasuchika had a deep friendship with Kan SHIMOZAWA and appears in fictional parts in Shimozawa's books about Shinsengumi.
Gensuke, Tainoshin's father, married into his wife's family, and his former family name was Hata.
After the Meiji Restoration, Shinohara said that the Ito group joined Shinsengumi to make Shinsengumi change into loyalists to the Emperor. Kondo refused to do so, saying "There is no today without Tokugawa," he wrote.
Thanks to Kubota taking office as the head, Shinohara worked for the Kanagawa Magistrate's office.
Ito and the other members did not join Shinsengumi soon after going up to Kyoto. Before joining Shinsengumi in 1865, they stayed at the Mantaro TANI dojo (a hall used for martial arts training) and visited places in Kyoto and Osaka.