Fukuoka Takachika (福岡孝悌)
Takachika Fukuoka (March 3, 1835 - March 7, 1919) was a Karo (chief retainer) of the Tosa Domain in the end of the Tokugawa period and a statesman in the Meiji period. His common name was Toji and his Gago (pseudonym) was Nanbin. He was awarded the title of Viscount.
In 1835, Fukuoka was born as a second son of Kyojun FUKUOKA, a feudal retainer of the Tosa Domain. In 1854, he studied under Toyo YOSHIDA as his disciple with Shojiro GOTO, Taisuke ITAGAKI and others. In 1858, he was appointed as Daikansatsu (senior inspector) with Yoshida's return to the politics of the Tosa Domain and formed a group of young reformists named 'Shin Okozegumi' to reform the politics of the domain. He oppressed the Tosaginno Party (Tosa Loyalist Party), which was an anti-mainstream faction, but the assignation of Yoshida brought about Fukuoka's downfall in 1862.
In 1863, he assumed the post of Sobayaku (Secretary) to the lord of the clan, Toyonori YAMAUCHI, and made efforts for the movement of Kobu Gattai (union of the imperial court and the shogunate). On the other hand, in alliance with Ryoma SAKAMOTO, the Kaientai (Japan's first modern corporation established by Ryoma SAKAMOTO) and the Rikuentai (military group organized by Shintaro NAKAOKA, he actively promoted the measures for the encouragement of new industry led by the former lord Toyonobu YAMAUCHI, through a clan-owned trading enterprise Kaiseikan. In 1867, FUKUOKA assumed the post of Sansei (councilor). He advocated the Kogi Seitairon (political theory focused on the parliamentary system), of which the Edo bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) was a central faction, as Tosa clan's public opinion and made Satsudo Meiyaku (the alliance between Satsuma and Tosa) in order to realize Taisei Hokan (transfer of power back to the Emperor). In the same year, together with Goto, he persuaded the shogun, Yoshinobu TOKUGAWA, to return power to the Emperor to counter the Satsuma and Choshu Domains which insisted to overthrow the bakufu with the use of military power.
After the Meiji Restoration, Fukuoka, together with Goto and Itagaki among the others, served as Choshisanyo (senior councilor) for the new government. He was involved in making a for 'Charter Oath of Five' with Kimimasa YURI of the Echizen Domain. In 1871, he was awarded the Shotenroku (premium) of 400 koku in recognition of his contribution to the restoration of Imperial rule. In 1871, he became Shosanji (junior councilor) and Gondaisanji (second to governor) of the domain after serving as Goyogakari (person in charge of the command from the Imperial Household Ministry) at Gijiteisaitorishirabesho (the office to examine parliamentary system). As one of the Tosa clique, he successively assumed the important central governmental posts such as Shiho-taifu (post of Ministry of Justice), Ganroin gikan (councilor of Chamber of Elders), Monbukyo (chief of Minister of Education), Sangi (councilor), privy councilor, court councilor, and so on. In 1884, he was given the title of Viscount.
In, 1919 Fukuoka died at 85 years old. His grave is located in the Somei Cemetery in Toshima Ward, Tokyo.
On November 23, 1872, when Fukuoka was Shiho-taifu, he submitted a petition to forbid the keeping of concubines by law together with Shinpei ETO who was Shihokyo (Justice Minister)
However, as keeping concubines was a long-lasting practice, their petition was simply ignored and never adopted.