Katayama Tokuma (片山東熊)
Tokuma KATAYAMA (January 18, 1854 - October 24, 1917) was an architect who was actively engaged in his profession during the Meiji period. He was born in Yamaguchi Prefecture. He was one of the very first students to enroll in the Department of Architecture at the Imperial College of Engineering.
Working for the Imperial Household Department, he was engaged in the construction of a large number of Imperial court structures, such as guesthouses. In addition to designing a total of 36 prefectural government offices, museums, and various types of buildings for the Imperial Household Department in his job, he designed 14 residences for aristocrats in between his civil services.
He was the first disciple of Josiah Conder, who came to Japan to train Japanese architects.
In 1854, he was born into a family of feudal warriors of Choshu Province in Hagi City. He joined the Kihei-tai Troop and fought in the Boshin War. In 1879, he graduated from the Imperial College of Engineering. He, Kingo TATSUNO, and Tatsuzo SONE were in the same class.
After graduating, he worked for Kobusho (the Ministry of Industry). In 1882, prior to construction of the Arisugawa-tei House, he and Imperial Prince Arisugawa Taruhito went on an inspection tour of Europe. In 1886 he worked for Kokyo gozoei kyoku and took part in the construction of the Meiji-kyuden Palace, and then he went on an official trip to the German Empire through the following year. In 1889, he was assigned to the Uchi no takumi ryo (Bureau of Skilled Artisans) of the Imperial Household Department. In 1897, prior to constructing the Togu-gosho Crown Prince's Palace, he went on an inspection tour of Europe and the United States through the following year. In 1899, construction of the Togu-gosho Crown Prince's Palace started (it was completed in 1909). In 1911, he took part in the construction of the funeral venue for Emperor Meiji. In 1916, he received the Kunittokyokujitsudaijusho (Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun).
The Japan Red Cross Hospital (1890): relocated to Museum Meiji-Mura
Nara National Museum (1894), designated an important cultural property, Nara City
Kyoto National Museum (1895), designated an important cultural property, Kyoto City
The Jinpu-kaku Mansion (1907), designated an important cultural property, Tottori City
Hyokeikan at Tokyo National Museum (1908), designated an important cultural property, Taito Ward
The Togu-gosho Crown Prince's Palace (1909), which was later used as the Akasaka-rikyu Detached Palace and is currently used as a guesthouse
His brother (Norikazu YUASA) resigned from his post, protecting Aritomo YAMAGATA of the Choshu faction, when the Hyobu-sho (the Ministry of Military Personnel) scandal (the Yamashiroya incident in 1871) occurred. For this reason, it is said that YAMAGATA flattered KATAYAMA.
After being devoted to construction of the Togu-gosho Crown Prince's Palace, he reported to Emperor Meiji on the completion of the palace, but the Emperor said nothing except that the palace was 'too luxurious,' and this shocked him so much that he became physically weak and susceptible to illnesses.