Yukichi FUKUZAWA (educator) (福澤諭吉)

Yukichi FUKUZAWA (January 10, 1835 - February 3, 1901) was a samurai warrior (served in the Nakatsu domain), writer, enlightenment thinker, the founder and publisher of the Jiji Shinpo (a newspaper), educator, the first president of the Tokyo Gakushikaiin (present Nihon Gakushiin,) and the founder of Keio Gijuku. As he also devoted himself to founding Senshu University (Senshu Gakko in those days), he is considered one of the six greatest educators of the Meiji era.

Recently, his name is generally written as 福沢諭吉, as can be seen on the official websites of the educational corporation of Keio Gijuku, including Keio University, instead of 福澤諭吉.
He had once called himself 'Yukichi NAKAMURA.'
His real personal name was Han. His pseudonym was Shii. His family name, which was originally pronounced 'Fukusawa,' came to be pronounced 'Fukuzawa' after the Meiji Restoration.


On January 10, 1835, he was born the second son (the youngest child) of Hyakusuke FUKUZAWA, a low-ranking retainer of the Nakatsu domain, by his wife Ojun, in Kurayashiki of the Nakatsu domain, Buzen Province, which was located in Dojimahama in Osaka (1-chome, Fukushima, Fukushima Ward, Osaka City, Osaka Prefecture, generally called Hotarumachi.)
His name Yukichi originated from the fact that he was born in the evening when his father, also a Confucianist, obtained "Joyujorei," a record of ordinances under the reign of Kenryutei in Qing China. His father held a position of dealing with the merchants in Osaka from whom the domain was borrowing money, and was also a Confucian scholar. In the Nakatsu domain, in which great disparities in family status existed among the retainers, Yukichi's father could not get promoted due to their low family status until the end of his life. Later, Yukichi, as a son, even stated 'the status system of feudal society is my father's enemy' ("Fukuo jiden") and also confessed that he himself, looking at his father, had been doubtful about the feudal system. Incidentally, while he lived with his mother and siblings, he was adopted by his uncle Jutsuhei NAKAMURA in his childhood and took the family name Nakamura. Later, he returned to the home of his real parents, the Fukuzawa family.

In 1836, at the age of one and a half, when his father died, he returned to the Nakatsu domain and lived there. Unlike his father, his siblings, and the sons of typical samurai families, he did not hold values of Koteichushin and was not a devout Buddhist or shintoist. He hated reading at first, but at the age of 14 to 15, he began studying for the simple reason that it might have looked bad that he was the only man in hig neighborhood who did not study. When he started, however, he showed marked improvement in learning and began to read widely thereafter.

In 1854, at the age of 19, he studied Rangaku in Nagasaki City. He boarded at Koei-ji temple in Nagasaki City, where a stone monument to commemorate him stands at present. He decided to study Rangaku when his elder brother encouraged him to learn the Dutch language on the grounds that the government had been demanding gunnery techniques after the arrival of "black ships", but Dutch gunnery should be studied through books written in Dutch. Yukichi lived in the house of Monojiro YAMAMOTO, who was an expert of gunnery and a public servant of Nagasaki, and learned the Dutch language under a Dutch translator, who worked as a Nagasaki official for interpreting and the like.

Days as a student at Tekijuku (Osaka)

In 1855, he received a message from his family that they wanted him to return to Nakatsu because they came in discord with Iki OKUDAIRA, who introduced the Yamamoto family to Yukichi, and the Okuraida family, the home of the parents of Iki (the family with the status of producing the chief retainer of the Nakatsu domain.)
Since Yukichi determined not to return to Nakatsu when he left there in the previous year, he dared to go to Edo through Osaka as he had planned. When he arrived at Osaka, he visited his elder brother, who worked at kurayashiki of the Nakatsu domain as their father once had. He was persuaded by his brother out of going to Edo and into studying Rangaku in Osaka. Then, he decided to live in kurayashiki of the Nakatsu domain in Osaka and study at Tekijuku of Koan OGATA, a scholar of Rangaku. Unfortunately, he fell ill with typhoid fever and returned to Nakatsu for a while.

In 1856, he went to Osaka again and studied there. In the same year, his brother died and he was obliged to succeed his brother as head of the family. But he could not give up studying in Osaka; therefore, he paid the debts by selling off his father's collection of books and family's furniture and household goods, and went to Osaka to study at Tekijuku again against the opposition of his relatives except for his mother. Since he could not afford the school fees, he became a dependent (resident student) of Tekijuku on the pretext of translating a handwritten copy of a textbook on fortifications he had secretly made from a book (C.M.H.Pel,Handleiding tot de Kennis der Versterkingskunst,Hertogenbosch 1852) he had borrowed from Iki OKUDAIRA.

In 1857, he became the head teacher of Tekijuku. At the Tekijuku, he read and copied the original Dutch books, and sometimes performed chemical experiments according to the books. As by his nature he hated to see blood, he never performed bloodletting, surgical operations, dissections and the like. Although the Tekijuku was a medical school, he seemed to have learned the Dutch language rather than having studied medical science.

To Edo

In 1858, for the purpose of serving as an instructor at the Rangaku school opened at the residence of the lord of Nakatsu domain in Edo, Yukichi went to Edo accompanied by Masao YOSHIKAWA (in those days, his name was Shukichi OKAMOTO, and was later changed to Setsuzo FURUKAWA.)
He lived in the secondary residence of the Okudaira family located in Tsukiji Tepposhu, and taught Rangaku there. Since this Rangaku school 'Ichishoka juku' was the predecessor of Keio Gijuku, this year is considered the foundation year of Keio Gijuku.

In 1859, he visited Yokohama City to observe the foreign concession that was located there according to the Treaty of amity and commerce between the United States and Japan. He was shocked to learn that they did not speak Dutch and he could not even read the letters on signboards there because their main language was English. Fully realizing the necessity of learning English, Yukichi began learning English mostly on his own.

In the winter of the year, it was decided that the Japanese embassy would visit the USA on the USS Powhatan for mutual ratification of the Treaty of amity and commerce with the United States, and the Kanrin Maru was to be dispatched as the escort ship to the USS Powhatan.

Visited USA

In 1860, Yukichi went to the USA as an attendant to Kimura Settsu no kami, the commissioner of warships and the Captain of the Kanrin Maru. Kaishu KATSU commanded the Kanrin Maru. It was the first time the Kanrin Maru, completely made by the Japanese, crossed the Pacific Ocean after the Japanese first saw a steamship, which was only seven years before; later, Yukichi described the voyage of the Kanrin Maru as a great honor that the Japanese should be proud of. Incidentally, it is considered that Yukichi was on bad terms with Kaishu KATSU. On the other hand, Yukichi maintained a close relationship with Kimura Settsu no kami, even after Kimura retired from office at the Meiji Restoration until the last years of Kimura.

While in the USA, Yukichi saw a lot of things he had learned from books in the science field; on the other hand, he was shocked to find differences in customs and culture.
He wrote that he was surprised to know that the American people knew almost nothing about what became of the descendants of George Washington, while every Japanese knew what became of descendants of their monarchs, including Ieyasu TOKUGAWA (George Washington had no descendants.)
Yukichi and Manjiro NAKAHAMA (John Manjiro,) who attended the embassy as an interpreter, bought copies of the concise edition of "Webster's English Dictionary" which they used in studying English in Japan.

Back in Japan, based on "Kaei tsugo", which was a Cantonese-English vocabulary book he had bought in the USA, Yukichi compiled "Zotei Kaei tsugo" by adding the pronunciation to the English words in katakana and the Japanese expressions corresponding to the Cantonese words, and published it. That was the first book that Yukichi had published. In this book, Yukichi expressed the pronunciation of 'v' by inventing a new Japanese letter 'ヴ' and 'ヷ' by adding voicing marks to 'ウ' and 'ワ', the former of which have taken root in the general Japanese writing system. Yukichi taught in Tepposhu again. This time, he mainly taught English instead of Dutch, and he had changed the school from the Rangaku school to the Eigaku school. He was employed by gaikokugata of bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun) and translated official documents. As it was a custom to add a Dutch translation to an official document in Japan, he took the advantage of the job to learn English by comparing English with Dutch of the documents. He supposedly had significantly improved English reading in those days, but still might have found some parts difficult to understand and had to refer to Dutch translations.

In the winter of the year, it was decided that the embassy led by the senior envoy Takeuchi Shimotsuke no kami would be dispatched to European countries and that Yukichi would accompany the embassy. On this occasion, he bought English books with the money he had received from bakufu as an outfit allowance and brought them back to Japan. Also in Europe, he was surprised at differences in customs and culture including the land trade; besides, he observed customs and daily life of Europeans that were new to the Japanese and could not have been learned from books. They included hospitals, banks, the postal law, conscription ordinances, election system, and the parliamentary system, for example. Through the experiences of participating in the envoys to foreign countries, Yukichi deeply felt that Western learning should be widely accepted in Japan.

After he came back to Japan, he launched a campaign for enlightenment by writing books, including "Seiyo jijo." He once advocated reform of the organization of the bakufu as a retainer.
He translated the whole text of the Declaration of Independence and introduced it to Japan by printing it as 'The exhortation of independence of the 13 states in the US in July 4, 1716' in "Seiyo jijo" (first edition, Vol. II..)

Visited Europe

In 1862, he landed at the port of Marseille by way of Hong Kong, Singapore, the Indian Ocean, the Red Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea. He visited Lyons, Paris, London, Rotterdam, Den Haag, Amsterdam, Berlin, Petersbourg (Saint-Petersburg), and Lisbon. Four pictures, which might have been taken by a German photographer while Yukichi was in Utrecht of the Netherlands, have been found in the memorial photo album kept in the Money Museum in Utrecht.

In 1867, he left Yokohama for the USA again and visited New York, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.

After the Meiji Restoration

In 1868, he named the Rangaku school 'Keio Gijuku', and thereafter, he devoted himself to education. Even after the Meiji Restoration, he kept advocating the necessity of spreading the Western learning; when the movement towards the establishment of the National Diet was spreading in Japan, he advocated an English-style constitution by keeping a distance from the movement.

In 1880, Yukichi cooperated in founding Senshugakko (present Senshu University) by providing his bookkeeping school in Kyobashi Ward and Meiji Kaido in Kobikicho for the four founders of Senshugakko.

When the Meiji-14 coup of 1881 occurred, he broke with key government officials.

In 1882, Yukichi launched the daily newspaper "Jiji Shinpo" and led public opinion based on the idea of being impartial and independent of any political party.

On September 26, 1898, he was stricken with a cerebral hemorrhage and recovered. On August 8, 1900, he was stricken with a cerebral hemorrhage again and fell into a coma, and recovered consciousness in an hour.

On January 25, 1901, he was stricken with a cerebral hemorrhage again, and on February 3, he died of the last stroke. His family declined the offering of flowers for his funeral with thanks in deference to Yukichi's last wishes, except for the flowers from Shigenobu OKUMA, Yukichi's sworn friend.

His grave

Since Yukichi lived on the campus of Keio Gijuku, a stone monument stands on the Mita campus of Keio Gijuku University to mark the place of his death (part of the stylobate of his house also remains.)
His posthumous Buddhist name is 'Daikanin dokuritsujison koji' and his grave is in Azabusan Zenpuku-ji Temple in Minato Ward, Tokyo. On February 3, the anniversary of his death called Yukichiki, a great number of people concerned with Keio Gijuku, including the principal and students, visit his grave.

When he was reburied from the first burial place to Zenpuku-ji Temple in Azabu in 1977, his body was found partially mummified. It is considered that his body had been submerged in relatively cold groundwater isolated from the outside air so that his body had been kept from decay. Someone suggested dissecting the body for academic purposes, and someone suggested preserving the body, but the body was buried as it was according to his descendants' strong request.

Personal Profile and Philosophy

Dokuritsujison' is Yukichi's famous word, which became part of his posthumous Buddhist name.
Yukichi defined the word in Article 2 of "Shushin yoryo" as 'a person who keeps both mentally and physically independent and respects himself without losing dignity as a person is a man of dokuritsujison.'

He wrote a lot of books, including those marked as bestsellers, "Seiyo jijo" and "Bunmeiron no gairyaku," having set a trend in Japan after the Meiji Restoration to lead the Japanese to grow out of Sinocentrism and Confucianism and positively accept Western culture.

As mentioned above, he hated feudalism in which only the social standing of a family talks, as 'the enemy of my father.'
The bakufu was not the only target of his anger; he also directed his anger at the ruling classes of the Qing dynasty and the Yi dynasty of Korea, both of which clung to the sakuho system based on Sinocentrism.
On the other hand, he thoroughly criticized those who had served bakufu and who also came to assume important positions in the new government, such as Takeaki ENOMOTO and Kaishu KATSU, as 'opportunists.'
("Yasegaman no setsu")

In "Fukuojiden", the autobiography written in his later years, he describes that the townsmen abhorred the students of Tekijuku in dirty clothes as 'The townsmen seem to abhor eta or something, which is not surprising by thinking that the students appear as such to them.'

He was not so much religious, as he described himself in the autobiography written in his later years "Fukuojiden": 'I have never feared deities and been thankful to Buddha from childhood. I have never believed in fortune-telling and curses, and I have been completely indifferent to such a story about a fox that bewitches a person.
Even as a child, I thought quite straightforwardly.'

He introduced a banking system, especially a central banking system, to Japan, and he contributed to establishing the Bank of Japan.

He also introduced the double-entry bookkeeping system, which is the basis of accounting. Yukichi translated the terms debtor and creditor as karikata and kashikata.

He introduced modern insurance systems to Japan. Yukichi describes three kinds of accident insurance of shogai ukeoi (life insurance), kasai ukeoi (fire insurance), and kaijo ukeoi (marine insurance) by an expression 'About accident insurance - INSUARANSU' in "Seiyo tabi annai."

His portrait was printed on a series D 10000 yen note issued from 1984 to 2004 and a series E 10000 yen note issued from 2004.
For that reason, people sometimes call the 10000 yen note 'Yukichi.'
Accordingly, the number of 10000 yen notes is sometimes counted as counting the number of persons in the manner of one person, two persons, and the like.

Although Yukichi is known as 'the person on the largest denomination bill' today, the Ministry of Finance, Financing Bureau first planned to issue a 100000 yen note featuring Shotoku-taishi, a 50000 yen note featuring Hideyo NOGUCHI, and a 10000 yen note featuring Yukichi FUKUZAWA as new banknotes on November 1, 1984. Since issuing the 100000 yen note and 50000 yen note was canceled afterwards, Yukichi FUKUZAWA, on the 10000 yen note, turned out to be the person on the largest denomination bill.

In the schools operated by Gakko hojin Keio Gijuku including Keio University, only Yukichi FUKUZAWA, the founder, has been traditionally called 'Fukuzawa sensei' with a title for teachers, and the others, including teachers and students, have been officially called with a casual title 'kun.'

About Asian neighbors

Later, some people argued that Yukichi was contemptuous of Asian countries and approved of invasion of these countries.

Yo HIRAYAMA opposes these arguments in his "Fukuzawa yukichi no shinjitsu" (Bungeishinsho, Bungeishunju,) that these impressions of Yukichi were made by Mikiaki ISHIKAWA, the editor of "Jiji Shinpo," who wrote "Fukuzawa yukichi den" and compiled "Fukuzawa zenshu." According to HIRAYAMA, it is the fact that Yukichi attacked the government of China and the government of Korea, but never looked down upon the races. Discriminatory remarks such as the article, in which the Qing soldiers are called swans, were written by ISHIKAWA, who compiled the articles under the name of FUKUZAWA in "Fukuzawa zenshu."

It has been proved, however, that some of the articles were drafted by FUKUZAWA and written by the other person in fact; ISHIKAWA should not be solely blamed for all the articles.

On the other hand, Yukichi contributed support for Asian 'influential reformists' to 'modernize' the neighboring countries. He supported Gyokukin KIN and others of the Yi dynasty Korea; invented a mixed writing system of Chinese and Hangul; and expended his funds on the establishment of "Kanjo Junpo" (written in Chinese,) which was to develop into the first newspaper partly written in Hangul in Korea "Kanjo Shuho." From June, 1881, he made Keio Gijuku accept students from Korea.

About the Sino-Japanese War

The Sino-Japanese War was fought from July, 1894 to April, 1895.

FUKUZAWA published a bylined article 'Shikin Gien ni tsuite' in the August 14, 1894 issue of "Jiji Shinpo," asking the readers to make a contribution toward winning the war if Japan had to fight the war anyway.

In 'Royo no hansei' of his autobiography written in his later years "Fukuo jiden," he wrote as follows:
As I look back the history, a lot of unbearable things have occurred, but on the other hand, Japan, as a whole, has been making great progress; Japan had gradually advanced for these years, and now it won the victory in the Sino-Japanese War, which was brought by the joint cooperation of the government and people. What a delightful and grateful victory it is.'
'I can hear that good news because I am alive. Every time I received the news, I wept for my dead friends. How badly I want to show them that news.'

Yukichi's theory of the equality of the sexes

During the Meiji Restoration, Yukichi immediately introduced feminism of Western countries to Japan; he stated that polygyny and the keeping a mistress are bad practices because 'the married couple is the base of morality', that women should be emancipated, and that women should be granted the right to receive an equal education because women and men are equally human beings. Keio Gijuku Yochisha elementary school, which was founded in 1874, adopted a coeducation system from 1877 for some years; the school's adoption of a coeducation system in such an early period was a rare example in the modernized Japan's education. The draft of Family Law in Civil Law during the Meiji period was close to Yukichi's theory of the equality of the sexes, and Yukichi supported the draft, but it was replaced by Family Law adopting patriarchy because the draft was opposed by the descendants of samurai families.

He advocated in his "Hinkoron" (published in December, 1885) that state-regulated prostitution should be maintained to keep 'the public peace' and 'the public order.'
His theory of state-regulated prostitution was to prevent intermediary exploitation and the underworld from existing, and he stated that the government should also supervise hygiene. On the other hand, for prostitutes, he bitterly stated that 'the occupation is the most despicable and the most heinous, and nothing but a business of brutes, which is against the cause of morality' and advised the readers to go to these places secretly.

Master of Iai

Yukichi was a master of Iai; he had practiced Iai in the Tachimi shinryu school from his youth to be granted the menkyo kaiden when he grew up to be a man. Although Yukichi was nearly assassinated several times by those who hated the rapid influx of Western ideas, he fled them instead of fighting back with a sword. Escaping danger is undoubtedly the safest art of self-defense, and Yukichi supposedly regarded Iai as entirely a way of seeking after truth and not a way of killing a person, which is close to the ideas of Kaishu KATSU and Tesshu YAMAOKA, who had also never killed a person, although they had a reputation for their mastery of swordsmanship.

Until his later years, Yukichi had spent all his time in practicing katageiko of Iai for keeping good health.

Around the time of the Sino-Japanese War, a newspaper publishing company held a forum with 'swordsmen' at the end of Edo period who were alive in those days. When they talked about who is the strongest swordsman of those dead and those alive, all the participants agreed on Fukuzawa.

When martial arts were all the rage from the middle of the Meiji period, Yukichi ceased speaking about Iai with someone and showing his Iai to someone as he described 'I put away my Iai sword' ("Fukuo jiden".)
He was cynical about any boom.

When 'swordsmanship shows' were prosperous, Yukichi took a disciple who made a great fuss about a showman as 'a master with the sword' to the show and said 'It's nothing to crow about'; when they returned home, he showed his swordsmanship to the disciple who was quite surprised about that.

Yukichi and Kaishu KATSU

Yukichi had always been critical of Kaishu KATSU.
During the Boshin War, sailors of Kanrin-maru, a ship of the Fleet of Enomoto Takeaki in the port of Shimizu, fought soldiers of the new government's forces and the dead bodies of the sailors were abandoned there (it is a famous story that SHIMIZU no Jirocho buried the bodies and gained a reputation for courage) and later during the Meiji period, a stone monument was erected for the war dead in the precincts of Seiken-ji temple in Shimizu; when Yukichi took a trip with his family to Shimizu, he read and got furious about the epitaph signed by Takeaki ENOMOTO on the monument, which said 'Men who served their master died for their master (which means that the servants of the Tokugawa family died for the Tokugawa family).'

In an open letter titled "Yasegaman no setsu," Yukichi relentlessly criticizes Kaishu KATSU and Takeaki ENOMOTO (both of whom had been vassals of the shogun but served the Meiji government) with a well-reasoned argument by quoting sentences of all ages and stressing his fairness by stating that Yukichi was understanding the difficult positions of KATSU and ENOMOTO. Some people still say that it was conversion or betrayal of Kaishu KATSU that he was accepted as an honorable man after the Meiji Restoration, but on the other hand, other people have come to highly evaluate Kaishu KATSU and Takeaki ENOMOTO for their contribution to Japan without sticking to the small framework of the Tokugawa family, as a whole.

As a matter of fact, while discontented former samurai warriors of various domains revolted against the rapid reform of the Meiji Restoration, the former vassals of the shogun, who would have formed the largest hostile group to the new government, never betrayed the new government. That was made possible by the efforts of Kaishu KATSU, Ichio OKUBO, and Tesshu YAMAOKA.

Incidentally, Yukichi applied for a loan from Kaishu KATSU and was refused.

In those days, Keio Gijuku was in financial difficulties for several reason, including the students from Satsuma domain leaving before graduation; therefore, Yukichi asked Kaishu KATSU for financial help because Kaishu equally financed the former vassals of the shogun in a relatively straightforward manner. Since Kaishu knew that Yukichi held land as broad as 46,200 sq.m. in Mita, which was disposed of by the government, Kaishu answered that if Yukichi sold the land and the money would still be insufficient to operate Keio Gijuku, he would finance Yukichi; as Yukichi loved the land of Mita, he did not sell the land. Yukichi published "Yasegaman no setsu" after this meeting. In "Fukuo jiden," he states his opinion about a debt as below.

My policy on money is like this. When I do not have it, I cannot use it, and when I have it, I do not waste it. Whether I use a large sum of money or little, I will never borrow it from people. When I do not want to use it, I do not use it, and when I want to use it, I use it. I have never sought someone's advice about whether or not to use it. I do not want to be instructed by anyone about that. When I am rich or poor, or when I am having a hard time or an easy time, I am always independent. Whatever happens, I have never grumbled to someone about it and always kept calm, which might have made people believe that I am rich.'

Western medicine

According to "Isha no mita Fukuzawa Yukichi" by Masaharu TSUCHIYA (Chuokoronsha, Chukoshinsho) and "Fukuzawa Yukichi no 'Kagaku no susume'" by Kunitomo SAKURAI (Shodensha), Yukichi was deeply involved in Western medicine and left the achievements below.

Publication of "Rangaku kotohajime"

Takahira KANDA, a friend of Yukichi, ran into a handwritten copy of "Rangaku kotohajime keii" written by Genpaku SUGITA. Yukichi published the book as "Rangaku kotohajime" with a foreword by himself in 1869 by permission of Renkei SUGITA, Genpaku's descendant of the fourth generation. On April 1, 1890, he reprinted the book with 'Rangaku kotohajime saihanjo' on the occasion of the general meeting of Nihon igakukai.

Support to Shibasaburo KITAZATO

For Shibasaburo KITAZATO, who returned to Japan in 1892 from Germany where he had studied, Yukichi established Dainippon shiritsu eiseikai densenbyo kenkyujo (generally called Denken) in Shibayama, Tokyo, and invited KITAZATO to become head. In 1894, Denken moved to Atago-cho in Shiba. While the project of moving Denken to Atago-cho was proceeding, the residents launched a campaign against Denken; to prove that Denken was safe, Yukichi built a new house for his second son Sutejiro next to the site for Denken. When the control of Denken was transferred to the state in 1899, KITAZATO resigned as head and started working at Tsukushigaoka yojoen, which was established by Yukichi, Sensai NAGAYO, and Ichizaemon MORIMURA.

Establishment of Keio Gijuku Igakusho

In 1870, Yukichi decided to establish an English-style medical school for Seishiro MAEDA, a student of Keio Gijuku. In 1873, Igakuso was opened within the Keio Gijuku campus. The medical doctor Toan MATSUYAMA, a graduate of Keio Gijuku, became the headmaster. Yukichi invited Gentan SUGITA to make Sonnosha a place for instructing medical doctors. Unfortunately, in June, 1880, Igakusho was closed.

On December 27, 1916, 15 years after the death of Yukichi, Keio Gijuku was permitted to establish its Medical Department, and in March 1917, Keio Gijuku opened for application for freshmen enrollment at the premedical course of the Medical Department, and had Shibasaburo KITAZATO as Dean of the Medical Department.

Major Books

"Seiyo jijo"

"Seiyo tabi annai"

"Kyuri zukai"

"Sekai kuni zukushi"

"Gakumon no susume"

"Hibi no oshie"

"Bunmeiron no gairyaku"

"Tsuzoku minkenron"

"Tsuzoku kokkenron"

"Minjo isshin"

"Jiji shogen"

"Fukuo jiden"

"Fukuo hyakuwa"

"Fukuo hyakuyowa"

"Shugyo risshihen"

"Yasegaman no setsu"

"Teichu koron"

Chosakushu' Complete 12 Volume Set was published by Keio Gijuku Daigaku Shuppankai in 2003.


Yukichi FUKUZAWA "An Outline of a Theory of Civilization (Bunmeiron no gairyaku)", Keio Gijuku Daigaku Shuppankai, November 2008
ISBN 4-7664-1560-4

Memorial Event

In 2009, 'Keio Gijuku 150th Anniversary "Mirai wo hiraku - Fukuzawa Yukichi ten" was held at Tokyo National Museum, Fukuoka Art Museum, and Osaka Municipal Museum of Art.

[Original Japanese]