Keihan Keishin Line (京阪京津線)

The Keishin Line is a railway line of Keihan Electric Railway Co., Ltd., that connects Misasagi Station, located in Yamashina Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture, and Hamaotsu Station, located in Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture. The entire line is subject to the Track Act.

This line and the Keihan Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line are collectively called the Keihan Otsu Line. The Otsu Line employs a line color, and that of the Keishin Line is yellow.

KANSAI THRU PASS is usable for the Keishin Line. Further, PiTaPa was introduced on April 1, 2007 along with ICOCA, issued by the West Japan Railway Company (JR West).

Railway data

Distance (operation kilometers): 7.5km
Track gauge: 1435 mm
Number of stations: Seven (one underground station and six ground stations, inclusive of original and terminal stations)

Double-track section: The entire line
Electrified section: The entire line (direct current 1500V)
Block (railway): Automated block system
Safety device: Automatic Train Stop using the Keihan-type speed-check ATS

Summary

In the past, the line started from Sanjo Station (Kyoto Prefecture)--which was also used by the Keihan Main Line but later became independent from the Keihan Main Line and was renamed as Keishin Sanjo Station--passed a steep incline of 66.7 per mil, equivalent to Usui-toge Mountain pass or the Tokyu Tamagawa Line, located near Keage Station (Keihan), ran on a track on streets to Misasagi Station and ultimately connected Kyoto and Otsu; however, on October 12, 1997, its portion of Misasagi Station westward was abolished and the line was directly linked to the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line. In the Otani - Kamisakaemachi section there also exists a steep incline of 61 per mil over Mt. Osakayama, which is east of the station. A train of this line runs on the track running on streets near Hamaotsu Station, and it's the only case in Japan where a four-car train operates on track running on streets and directly runs into the subway line (which is permitted as an exceptional case).

Because it's the railway line connecting Kyoto and Otsu, this line is quite inferior to the Biwako Line, which is operated by the West Japan Railway Company and runs parallel to it, in terms of travel time, frequency of operation and fares. Particularly, after the opening of the Tozai Line of Kyoto Municipal Subway, the fare for the Sanjo - Hamaotsu section rose sharply because the fare of the Kyoto Municipal Subway and that of Keihan were charged separately. Even worse, passengers traveling between Yodoyabashi - Hamaotsu had to pay fares for three lines--Keihan (the Keihan Main line), Kyoto Municipal Subway and Keihan (the Otsu Line)--and buy tickets again at Sanjo Station, because no ordinary through-tickets were available (such inconvenience has been solved to a certain extent with the spread of KANSAI THRU PASS and PiTaPa). Historically, given its excessive financial burden, Keihan opted to run directly into the subway without obtaining the license of a Type II Railway Business Operator despite the fact that more competitive fares could have been set if Keihan had obtained a Type II Railway Business Operator's license for the Sanjo-keihan - Misasagi Station section currently operated by Kyoto Kosoku Railway Co., Ltd.

However, in view of the Kyoto Municipal Transportation Bureau's chronic red ink and the sluggish business of Keihan Electric Railway's Otsu Line after the opening of the Tozai Line, there is persistent opinion that it would be better for Keihan Railway to obtain the Type II Railway Business Operator's license, take over the operation of the Tozai Line on a contract basis and operate two lines in an integrated manner.

Including the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line, Keihan Electric Railway suffers a loss of \1.5 billion a year and some media once reported that Keihan was considering the abolishment of the Otsu Line. Under such circumstances, Keihan's head office has started discussions with local municipalities (such as Otsu City) concerning the future operation of the line. Keihan had originally intended to spin off these two lines from Keihan Electric Railway and establish an independent company in the autumn of 2004, but in view of the dismal prospects of a new company it decided to postpone the implementation of such an idea until the revenue and expenditures reach break-even status through the efforts of cost reduction.

Types of operation

Except for some trains that run only between the Shinomiya - Hamaotsu section in the early morning and late at night, all trains run directly into the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line. Out of about four direct trains an hour, two trains run to Uzumasa-tenjingawa Station and others run to Kyoto Shiyakusho-mae Station, except in the early morning and late night. As a result, the line covers the whole area to Keishin-Sanjo Station (Sanjo-keihan Station), which was the former station of origin.

Express trains (which connected to local trains at Keihan-Yamashina Station where a siding was set), sub-express trains (which stopped at Keishin-Sanjo Station and each station of Misasagi Station onward) and direct trains to the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line used to run in the past, but currently all trains are local trains that turn back at Hamaotsu Station.

Before the opening of the subway Tozai Line, sub-express trains ran between Keishin-Sanjo Station and Hamaotsu Station at intervals of 24 minutes. Currently, direct trains to the subway Tozai Line ran between Keishin-Sanjo Station and Hamaotsu Station at intervals of 22 minutes. The increase in speed was realized because high-speed operation became possible in the underground portion of the line.

The stoppage time at Misasagi Station is slightly longer than those of other stations.

Trains run at 15-minute intervals in the daytime, but the line faces difficulty in the competition with JR and private cars due to the low frequency of operation. Given the circumstances, some people are requesting that the line be operated at ten-minute intervals, like the Keihan Main Line, but it hasn't yet realized on the ground that the transportation capacity of the line has already increased from two-car train, 15-minute interval before the opening of the subway Tozai Line to the current four-car train, 15-minute interval, while the number of passengers has declined; the further increase of transportation capacity isn't feasible in view of the additional costs. Although trains of the Tozai Line, except for direct trains from the Keishin Line, currently run at 7.5-minute intervals, their interval when the line came into operation in 1997 was ten minutes, which was inconsistent with that of direct trains from the Keishin Line, and in 2000 the interval was changed to 7.5 minutes in order to make it consistent with the operation pattern of direct trains from the Keishin Line. Therefore, in order to shorten the interval of direct trains from the Keishin Line to ten minutes, another adjustment might be required on the part of the Tozai Line, which could be a problem.

Currently, all trains are being operated without conductors. No ticket boxes are set inside trains, since they're so-called 'city-type one-man-operated trains' that use ticket gates at stations; consequently, tickets/fares aren't collected inside the trains. On August 8 of every year, the day of the Biwako Fireworks Festival, extra trains operate from Hamaotsu Station to Misasagi Station. On this particular day, trains are operated with a conductor dispatched from the Keihan Main Line for the sake of passenger safety.

Extension of the direct-run section into the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line

The Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line, which came into operation on October 12, 1997 and initially connected between Nijo Station in Nakagyo Ward and Daigo Station in Fushimi Ward, was extended on November 26, 2004 to Rokujizo Station in Uji City-- its first extension outside Kyoto City--and on January 16, 2008 it was extended from Nijo Station to Uzumasa-tenjingawa Station in Ukyo Ward. According to the above extension, trains of the Keihan Keishin Line started running directly to Uzumasa-tenjingawa Station, the new terminal of the subway Tozai Line, instead of the previous Kyoto Shiyakusho-mae Station. After the opening, the station of origin and terminus of half the trains bound for Hamaotsu from 7 a.m. until 9 p.m. and those bound for Misasagi from 6 a.m. until 7 p.m. (mostly at 30-minute intervals) became Uzumasa-tenjingawa Station, and that of other trains became Kyoto Shiyakusho-mae Station. According to the revision of the time schedule made in January 2008, the number of trains was reduced for the first time since the line went directly into the subway, but such reduction was made only in the time zones other than the daytime and the 15-minute interval in the daytime remained unchanged.

Rolling stock

Keihan series 800 (second generation)

The era of Keishin Electric Tramway (Keishin Denki Kido)

March 19, 1906: Keishin Electric Tramway applied for approval to construct the track between the area around 117 Ohashi-cho Sanjo-dori, Shimogyo Ward, Kyoto City and Okura-cho, Otsu City.

(not clear):
Kyoto Electric Railway and one other company applied for approval to construct the track between the area around 117 Ohashi-cho Sanjo-dori, Shimogyo Ward, Kyoto City and Okura-cho, Otsu City.

The authorities asked Keishin Electric Tramway, Kyoto Electric Railway and one other company to compromise and join hands.

Kyoto Electric Railway and Keishin Electric Tramway joined hands.

January 24, 1907: Based on the Track Act, the approval and work order were delivered to Keishin Electric Tramway concerning the construction of the track between the area around 117 Ohashi-cho Sanjo-dori, Shimogyo Ward, Kyoto City and Okura-cho, Otsu City.

March 28, 1910: At the foundation shareholders meeting of Keishin Electric Tramway, held at the Kyoto Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Keishin Electric Tramway Co., Ltd., was established with 1.5 million yen in capital and Saburo OKUSHIGE, then the speaker of the House of Representatives, was nominated as the company's first president.

April 22, 1911: The construction permit was delivered to Keishin Electric Tramway.

June 21, 1911: Track construction started in Shiga Prefecture.

August 1, 1911: Construction of Osakayama Tunnel started.

December 4, 1911: The tunnel was bored through Mt. Osakayama.

June 16, 1912: The construction at Hinookatori was completed.

June 19, 1912: The Shinomiya Electric Power Plant was completed.

July 11, 1912: Twelve passenger cars were manufactured.

August 15, 1912: Keishin Electric Tramway commenced operation between Furukawacho (Higashiyama Sanjo Station, which was abolished on October 12, 1997) and Kamisekidera Station (the station that was located between the current Otani - Kamisakaemachi section and was abolished on August 15, 1971) as well as between Kamisekidera Station and Fudanotsuji Station (the station that was located between current Kamisakaemachi - Hamaotsu section and was abolished on October 1, 1946).

Total construction cost: \1,451,107.73

Although Furukawacho was the official station of origin, actual operation was conducted starting from Sanjo-Ohashi Station. The approval concerning the Sanjo-Ohashi Station - Furukawacho Station section was provisional due to the reasons attributable to Kyoto City, which was the road administrator.

December 13, 1912: Based on the Track Act, the approval and work order were delivered to Keishin Electric Tramway concerning the construction of the track between Sanjo-Ohashi Station and Furukawacho Station.

December 14, 1912: With the completed construction of an overhead crossing with the Tokaido Main Line of Japanese Imperial Government Railway (the Tokaido Main Line of the West Japan Railway Company) nearby Kamisekidera Station, direct trains from Furukawacho Station to Fudanotsuji Station started to run.

March 1, 1913: Through-tickets between this line and Otsu Electric Tramway (the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line) were offered for sale.

May 1, 1916: Due to the construction work of the current route of the Kyoto - Baba (Zeze Station) section of the Tokaido Main Line of the Japanese Imperial Government Railway, the work of relocating the Misasagi - Bishamon-michi section of the line to the north side of the Tokaido Main Line commenced (it was completed on August 1, 1921).

August 1, 1921: Bishamon-michi Station was renamed as Yamashinaeki-mae Station (Keihan-Yamashina Station).

February 22, 1922: The company applied for permission to extend the track between Fudanotsuji and Hamaotsu.

February 29, 1922: The Nakamura Hydro Power Plant, located on the upper reaches of the Ado-gawa River, was completed. February 20, 1923: Sanjo-Ohashi Station, which had been operated on a temporary basis, was relocated from Sanjo-dori Street kami to the east side of Sanjo Station of the Keihan Main Line, and the Furukawacho - Sanjo-Ohashi section commenced operations as an extension of the line.

Sales of discount through-tickets between this line and Taiko-kisen and Biwako Kisen started.

August 30, 1924: The company concluded a provisional agreement with Keihan Electric Railway Company concerning the merger of the two companies.

September 27, 1924: At the extraordinary shareholders' meeting of the Keihan Electric Railway Company, the acquisition of the railway business of Keishin Electric Tramway at a cost of 3.25 million yen, as well as the merger with Keishin Electric Tramway, was resolved, and the capital of Keihan Electric Railway Company was increased to 50.77 million yen.

The era of the (old) Keihan Electric Railway

February 1, 1925: Keishin Electric Tramway Co., Ltd., was acquired by Keihan Electric Railway Co., Ltd., and this line became the Keishin Line of the Keihan Electric Railway.

May 5, 1925: The Fudanotsuji - Hamaotsu section came into operation as an extension of the line, and as a result the entire line came into operation. Hamaotsu Station was established.

September 1, 1926: The company assigned the electric power distribution business, which had been conducted by the former Keishin Electric Tramway, to Kyoto Dento.

September 21, 1927: Misasagi Station was relocated and newly constructed.

July 1, 1928: Otenmon Station and Hiromichi Station were renamed as Jingu-michi Station (Heianjingu-mae Station, which was abolished in 1944) and Okazaki-michi Station (abolished on February 20, 1931), respectively.

November 20, 1928: Automatic block signals came into action.

February 9, 1931: Temporary platforms of Keage Station came into action due to the track relocation work.

February 20, 1931: Operation kilometers were reduced by 86 meters because the Furukawacho - Keage section, which had run on the exclusive track, was relocated to the track running on Sanjo-dori Street. Jingu-michi Station was relocated to the track running on Sanjo-dori Street. Okazaki-michi Station was abolished.

March 25, 1931: The new platforms of Keage Station were completed.

March 28, 1931: Furukawacho Station was moved back to its old site.

July 23, 1931: The Midorigaoka-undojomae temporary station was established near the border between Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture and Otsu City, Shiga Prefecture, which was in the Shinomiya - Oiwake section.

February 16, 1932: The track of the Otani - Oiwake section, which ran on streets, was converted to an exclusive track.

April 7, 1932: Otani Station was removed and newly constructed.

February 1, 1933: Model 50 electric cars, which were equipped with compound motors and regenerative breaking, came into operation for the first time in Japan.

May 11, 1933: The Keage - Hinooka section, which had used a track running on streets, was relocated to the exclusive track.

June 15, 1933: The travel time between Sanjo-Ohashi and Hamaotsu was reduced to 27 minutes in the case of the fastest train.

March 19, 1934: Three trains using the Keihan model 60 electric cars, which were the first connected cars in Japan, were completed and named 'Biwako-go.'

April 2, 1934: Direct train service between the Keihan Main Line and the Keishin Line via Sanjo Station and Sanjo-Ohashi Station commenced. Express 'Biwako-go,' which used model 60 electric cars, started running between Tenmabashi Station and Hamaotsu Station, and it linked Tenmabashi Station with Hamaotsu Station in 72 minutes in the case of the fastest train.

April 17, 1934: As the siding situated in front of Yamashina Station was completed, express trains between Sanjo-Ohashi and Hamaotsu started running and the travel time between Sanjo-Ohashi and Hamaotsu was reduced to 21 minutes in the case of the fastest train.

June 25, 1936: Tenmondai-shita Station commenced operation.

October 10, 1936: The names of lines were revised, and this line became the Keishin Line belonging to the Otsu Line.

August 20, 1937: The passenger fare of the Otsu Line was revised downward.

June 20, 1939: The track linking the Keishin Line and the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line was completed.

1940: Under the wartime structure, the minimum event commemorating the thirtieth anniversary of the Keishin Line was held along with the event commemorating the nation's 2,600th anniversary.

Around February 1940: Direct train service between the Keihan Main Line and the Keishin Line with 'Biwako-go' was suspended.

February 1, 1941: Jingu-michi Station was renamed as Heianjingu-mae Station.

1942: The Midorigaoka-undojomae temporary station was abolished.

April 15, 1943: Tenmondai-shita Station was renamed as Kujoyama Station.

The era of Keihanshin Express Electric Railway

October 1, 1943: Under the wartime governmental policy of integrating firms, the Land Transportation Business Coordination Act was enacted, and based on this act the Keihan Electric Railway Co., Ltd. merged with the Hanshin Electric Express Railway Company; consequently, the Keihanshin Express Electric Railway Company (the current Hankyu Corporation belonging to Hankyu Hanshin Holdings, Inc.) was established (the surviving company was Hanshin Express Electric Railway Company). This line was therefore operated by the Keihanshin Express Electric Railway Company.

November 10, 1943: Nagara-Koenshita Station was abolished.

April 1, 1944: Heianjingu-mae Station and Hinooka Station were abolished.

September 5, 1944: Commuter train service commenced.

November 21, 1944: In order to operate shuttle train service between Sanjo-Ohashi Station and Yamashinaeki-mae Station, a connecting track was set at Yamashinaeki-mae Station.

January 25, 1945: Direct trains from Tenmabashi Station to 'Omijingu Station' of the Sakamoto Line, via the Keihan Main Line and the Keishin Line, were operated in order to transport people who attended the 'Festival commemorating the thirteen-hundredth anniversary of the Taika Reform (Taika-no-kaishin)' (train No. 63).

April, 1945: The company purchased three passenger trains from the Atagoyama Railway, which had ceased business on December 11, 1944.

May 15, 1945: The operations of Keage Station, Otani Station and Fudanotsuji Station were suspended.

June 1, 1945: Otani Station resumed operations.

October 2, 1945: Keage Station resumed operations.

January 1, 1946: Nagara-Koenshita Station resumed operations.

April 25, 1946: The operations of both inbound and outbound trains were interrupted due to a landslide that occurred near to Kujoyama Station. Only inbound trains resumed their runs from the first train of the following day, April 26. May 10, 1946: Hamaotsu Station of the Keishin Line was relocated from the street south side of the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line to the old site of moorage situated on the north side of the same line.

October 1, 1946: Fudanotsuji Station, whose operations had been suspended, was abolished.

October 21, 1946: The company resumed group tourist business on the Keishin Line only for school trips.

February 1, 1948: The operation of express trains between Sanjo-Ohashi and Hamaotsu was resumed (25 minutes in the case of the fastest train). Direct trains began making runs between Sanjo-Ohashi and Ishiyamadera of the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line.

May 18, 1948: The passenger fare was raised by 75% throughout the line. At the same time, the fare section system of the Otsu Line was revised and the number of fare sections of the Keishin Line increased from three to four.

October 15, 1948: The use of the platform for outbound trains at Nagara-Koenshita Station was suspended.

October 31, 1948: The use of the platform for outbound trains at Nagara-Koenshita Station was resumed.

At around 16:40, the inbound train No. 25, which was standing between Keage and Kujoyama because its pole was off, retreated naturally due to a steep incline and collided with the following train, No. 58. Both trains further retreated due to the shock and collided with train No. 72, which was standing at Jingu-michi, and eventually the three trains were damaged rather badly. One passenger died and 70 more suffered minor or serious injuries.

May 1, 1949: Passenger fares were revised throughout the line.

May 20, 1949: At around 22:25 at the front of the Miyako Hotel located at Keage, the main circuit breaker of train No. 37 bound for Sanjo-Ohashi melted due to the grounding of its motor circuit, and eight passengers suffered burns.

July 16, 1949: The operation of 'Biwako-go' running directly between Hamaotsu and Tenmabashi restarted only on Saturdays, Sundays and national holidays.

August 7, 1949: A fire broke out at Shinomiya Shako-depot around 4:30, and consequently a building and 22 passenger cars were destroyed.

The operation of direct train between Sanjo-Ohashi and Ishiyama was temporarily suspended. To make up for the shortage of transport capacity, both express and local trains were operated at 15-minute intervals, and additionally the bus service by Keihan-jidosha Auto Company (Keihan Bus Co., Ltd) was increased.

August 8 - 13, 1949: The Keihan-jidosha Auto Company implemented a special schedule in order to provide bus service between Kyoto and Otsu to serve as a replacement for railway service.

November 25, 1949: Sanjo-Ohashi Station was integrated into Sanjo Station of the Keihan Main Line.

November 30, 1949: The new building of the integrated Sanjo Station was completed.

Before the opening of the subway Tozai Line

December 1, 1949: Keihan Electric Railway Co., Ltd., launched again with \300,340,000 in capital and took over the Keihan Main Line, the Katano Line, the Uji Line, the Keishin Line and the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line from Keihanshin Express Electric Railway Company; consequently, this line once again became the Keihan Electric Railway's Keishin Line.

December 11, 1949: The travel time of local trains between Sanjo and Hamaotsu was reduced to 32 minutes in the case of the fastest train.

December 30, 1949: The expansion and improvement work of Misasagi Station, Yamashinaeki-mae Station and Shinomiya Station, which was required to start the operation of two-car trains, was completed.

January 7, 1950: A safety zone was established at the inbound-train track of Furukawacho Station.

January 30, 1950: Out of 22 passenger cars of the Otsu Line that were destroyed by the fire at Shinomiya Shako-depot, 15 passenger cars that were deemed impossible to repair were abolished in addition to an aging electric passenger car and a freight car (a model 20 car and a sprinkler car).

September 3, 1950: Station buildings and power plants of the line were damaged by typhoon "Jane," and the total amounted about 30 million yen.

Due to the accident that occurred in the power cable of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., the power supply to the Otsu Line was interrupted for about twelve-and-a-half hours beginning at 12:30, and 13 trains that were running on the Keishin Line were forced to stop on the track.

September 4, 1950: As a power failure was restored at 1:50, normal operation was resumed with the first train.

September 10, 1950: Thanks to the completion of sub-main track for inbound trains at Shinomiya Station, the passing station of express inbound trains was changed from Keihan-Yamashina Station to Shinomiya Station.

October 30, 1950: Restoration work for the damages caused by typhoon "Jane" finished.

November 25, 1950: Furukawacho Station was renamed as Higashiyama-Sanjo Station.

December 25, 1950: The work to relocate a part of the track between Otani and Kamisekidera was completed, and the platform for inbound trains at Kamisekidera Station was improved to a high-floor platform.

April 1, 1951: The travel time of local trains between Sanjo and Hamaotsu was reduced to 30 minutes in the case of the fastest train.

May 15, 1951: The work to improve the track running on streets between Nagara-Koenshita and Hamaotsu started at a total cost of 884,000 yen.

October 15, 1951: The work to improve the track running on streets between Sanjo and Higashiyama-Sanjo was completed.

October 20, 1951: The flood-damage restoration work of the outbound-train track between Keage and Kujoyama was completed.

December 22, 1951: Trains for skiers commenced operations between Tenmabashi and Hamaotsu.

October 31, 1952: Three of model 5 electric cars used on the Otsu Line were abandoned.

December 20, 1952: The second phase of repair work of the track running on streets between Kujoyama and Misasagi for about 300 meters was completed.

April 1, 1953: Yamashinaeki-mae Station was moved eastward by 100 meters and renamed as Keihan-Yamashina Station.

July 21, 1953: The transport of the interrupted portion between Sanjo and Kujoyama was alternated by the bus service of Keihan-jidosha Auto Company, and trains were operated as a shuttle service between Hamaotsu and Kujoyama by setting up a temporary platform at Kujoyama Station.

October 13, 1953: The crossing set on the Kamisekidera National Route was changed to a semi-automatic one.

November 24, 1953: The change of the work method of the Keishin Line that was necessary for the operation of model 200 electric cars was permitted.

December 15, 1953: The tentative use of slider-type trolley pole for cars running on the Otsu Line commenced.

December 28, 1953: Hinooka Station resumed operations.

December 30, 1953: The alteration work of the Sanjo curve and improvement work of Hamaotsu Station, as necessary for the operation of two-car trains using model 200 electric cars, was completed.

January 4, 1954: A safety zone was established at Hinooka Station.

January 25, 1954: Express trains started running between Sanjo and Ishiyamadera via Hamaotsu.

January 29, 1954: The tentative use of wheel lubricators for the cars of the Otsu Line commenced.

April 11, 1954: Disaster prevention work at Kujoyama started.

July 4, 1954: Model 60 electric cars were operated from each station of the Otsu Line for group tourists directly going to Uji.

December 7, 1955: The crossing bar set on the Misasagi National Route (the Misasagi Prefectural Route, which was later abolished on October 12, 1997) was changed to the automatic crossing bar of the horizontal hoisting type.

January 10, 1956: The line name was established, and this line was called the Keishin Line belonging to the Otsu Line.

January 15, 1956: The special direct express 'YAWATA-go' was operated between Yawatacho (current Yawatashi) and Hamaotsu via Sanjo in order to transport people who were going to the Iwashimizu Yakuyoke Festival (a calamity dispelling festival held at Iwashimizu Hachiman-gu Shrine).

May 24, 1956: An apparatus for the announcement inside a car was equipped in the model 200 cars of 201-202 of the Otsu Line, and its experimental use was conducted.

September 13, 1956: An apparatus for the announcement inside a car was equipped in seven cars of the Otsu Line.

A train of the Keishin Line collided with a passenger car at Hasshin crossing (presumably abolished at present) located between Oiwake and Otani, and in the accident the driver and a manager of the Economics Department of Shiga Prefecture, who was inside the car, died immediately.

October 15, 1956: The renewal work of the track between Oiwake and Otani was completed.

December 15, 1956: The paving work of the track running on streets between Sanjo and Higashiyama-Sanjo was completed at a total cost of 3,800,000 yen.

January 10, 1957: The renewal work of the track situated at the curve near Sanjo Station and the improvement work of Hamaotsu Station started.

February 15, 1957: The renewal work of the track into heavy rails between Keihan-Yamashina and Oiwake was completed.

March 15, 1957: The renewal work of the track situated at the curve nearby Sanjo Station was completed at a total cost of 2,130,000 yen.

April 26, 1957: The manufacture of two Keihan model 260 electric cars for the Otsu Line was completed.

July 10, 1957: The renewal work of the track into heavy rails between Kujoyama and Hinooka was completed.

July 11, 1957: The manufacturing of five model 260 electric cars for the Otsu Line was completed.

July 15, 1957: The improvement work of Hamaotsu Station was completed.

December 24, 1958: Heaters were installed in 26 cars of the Otsu Line, which were used in express trains.

January 20, 1959: Power collectors of electric cars (power collector trolley) were changed from the wheel type to the slider type.

March 1, 1959: The improvement work of Nagara-Koenshita Station was completed and it was renamed as Kamisakaemachi Station, at which express trains make a stop.

April 8 - 14, 1959: Trains decorated in celebration of the marriage of the Crown Prince were operated.

December 25, 1959: The interlock at Keihan-Yamashina Station was changed to the remote control type.

August 12, 1961: High-performance Keihan model 80 electric cars, equipped with both speed-balancing brakes and power-generating brakes, were put into operation.

November 23, 1961: Direct operation to the Keihan Main Line with model 60 electric cars was terminated after the final run of 'Kiku-go' between Hamaotsu and Hirakata-koen.

June 24, 1965: Four model 300 electric cars (second generation) were manufactured (these cars were sent to the Keishin Line via the siding of Katamachi Station and the Keihan Main Line).

November 4, 1966: Dead-man devices were installed in 43 cars in which the device hadn't previously been installed.

March 25, 1968: The operation interval was revised from 15 minutes (express trains between Sanjo and Ishiyamadera, local trains between Sanjo and Hamaotsu) to 20 minutes (express trains between Sanjo and Ishiyamadera, local trains between Sanjo and Hamaotsu, local trains between Sanjo and Shinomiya) in order to make it consistent with that of the Keihan Main Line.

July 1, 1970: Over-speed prevention devices came into use on the Keishin Line.

July 30, 1970: A farewell ceremony for the model 60 electric cars (Biwako-go) was held at Sanjo Station.

August 23, 1970: The power collectors of electric cars were changed from slider-type poles to pantographs.

(not clear): The linking track to the Keihan Main Line located at Sanjo Station was removed. July, 1970: Model 80 electric cars of 81- 93 were altered one by one in order to use them for two-car train operation (the conversion to two-car train operation was completed in January 1972).

October, 1970: Model 80 cars of 94 - 96 were manufactured as cars for two-car trains.

August 15, 1971: Kamisekidera Station was abolished. The time schedule of the line was drastically revised, and as a result the connection between the Keishin Line and the Keihan Main Line was strengthened thanks to the change in the operating interval from 20 minutes to 15 minutes (sub-express trains between Sanjo and Ishiyamadera/Hamaotsu, local trains between Sanjo and Shinomiya). All trains began running as two-car trains, and the operation of single-car trains was terminated. Express trains were operated only in the morning and evening.

April 16, 1979: Keihan model 500 electric cars (second generation) were put into commercial operation.

September 20, 1979: The portion of the track of the Keishin Line between the east of Shinomiya Station and the east of Oiwake Station/the crossing with Meishin Expressway was moved northward by 15 meters due to the construction work of Nishi-otsu Bypass and the broadening of National Route 1. Oiwake Station was relocated and newly constructed.

October 30, 1980: Cowcatchers and auxiliary cowcatchers were installed on all of the 62 cars used on the Otsu Line.

January 9, 1981: The track linking the Keishin Line to the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line, which was located in front of Hamaotsu Station, was removed, and direct operation between Sanjo and Ishiyamadera via Hamaotsu was terminated.

April 12, 1981: Hamaotsu Station of the Keishin Line was integrated with the station of the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line that had the same name. The time schedule of the line was revised, and the operation of express trains was terminated.

July 31, 1981: The relocation and integration work of Hamaotsu Station was completed.

The old Hamaotsu Station of the Keishin Line was located at the site where the Asto-Hamaotsu building is currently located.

The old Hamaotsu Station of the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line was located at the west of the current Hamaotsu Station, where the Otsu Railway Division of Keihan Electric Railway is currently located.

While a switchback disappeared due to the integration of two stations, trains of the Keishin Line turned around on the track of the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line and inconvenience in maintenance and inspection jobs arose. In order to cope with the above problem, the work of reversing the front and rear of each car of the Keishin Line (16 cars of model 80, 12 cars of model 260 and four cars of model 500) was conducted during the period from May 28 until June 8 of the year, using a temporary turntable established at Nishikori Shako-depot.

April 1, 1984: ATS was implemented.

April 26, 1984: Keihan model 600 electric cars equipped with air-conditioners were put into commercial operation for the first time on the Keishin line.

January 17, 1986: The train radio system was put into use.

July 30, 1986: The no-smoking time was introduced in the morning rush hour throughout the line.

May 24, 1987: As the Tofukuji - Sanjo section of the Keihan Main Line became an underground railway, Sanjo Station was divided into a ground station and an underground station, and the station of the Keishin Line was left on the ground.

April 12, 1989: A train using model 80 electric cars equipped with air-conditioners was put into use.

October 1, 1989: The 'K card,' a kind of prepaid card, was introduced.

May 1, 1992: In preparation for the direct operation into the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line, which was then under construction, Keihan model 700 electric cars (third generation) that correspond to the voltage increase of the Otsu line to 1500V were put into commercial operation.

November 14, 1992: A space for the attachment of a wheelchair was set in the model 700 electric car of 705-706 for the first time for the Keihan Electric Railway.

December 29, 1994: In preparation for the model 600 electric cars' direct operation into the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line, which was then under construction, preparation work for the voltage increase of the Otsu Line to 1500V was completed.

January 30, 1995: The basic agreement on the direct operation of the trains of the Keishin Line into the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line was concluded between Kyoto City and Keihan Electric Railway Co., Ltd.

September 1, 1995: Inside-car ticket machines for ordinary tickets were introduced.

December 29, 1995: Seismographs were put into use.

October 28, 1996: The carrying in of Keihan model 800 electric cars (second generation) that were to be used for the direct operation into the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line began (32 cars for eight trains were introduced by the end of June of the following year).

November 2, 1996: The extended portion of Shinomiya Station was put into use.

November 14, 1996: As the renovation work of Oiwake Station was completed, four Otsu-e (Otsu paintings, named after the town of Otsu in Shiga Prefecture) drawn by a local artist were hung on the wall of the platform.

November 16, 1996: Otani Station was moved eastward by 71 meters (0.1 km in terms of operation kilometers), and its platform was extended so that it could handle four-car trains.

November, 1996: The voltage of the overhead wiring of the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line was increased from 600V to 1500V at midnight, when no trains ran during the time between the last train and the first train, and the test operation of model 800 electric cars commenced (it continued until July of the following year).

(not clear):
The extension work of platforms between Keihan-Yamashina and Hamaotsu required to accommodate four-car train operation was completed.

In the vicinity of the east crossing on the Misasagi Prefectural Route, a single track and overhead wiring were installed as a connecting track to the new track that ran from this line's outbound-train track to the track of the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line. April 8, 1997: Model 800 cars commenced test operation, running into the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line, and the test operation of all of 32 cars was conducted by the end of July.

June 28, 1997: The new building of Shinomiya Station commenced operation.

July 1, 1997: The Otsu branch was abolished.

October 11, 1997: Local trains between Keishin-Sanjo and Shinomiya (between Keishin-Sanjo and Hamaotsu only in the early morning) using model 80 cars of 81-82, as well as sub-express trains between Keishin-Sanjo and Hamaotsu using model 260 cars of 261-262 were operated as farewell trains for the section between Keishin-Sanjo and Misasagi (for the details of the final day, refer to the events related to the abolishment of the Keishin-Sanjo - Misasagi section).

After the opening of the subway Tozai Line

October 12, 1997: the 3.9 km in the Keishin-Sanjo - Misasagi section was abolished. Keishin-Sanjo Station, Higashiyama-Sanjo Station, Keage Station, Kujoyama Station and Hinooka Station were abolished.

Misasagi Station was moved westward approximately 300 meters and became the underground station for common use with the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line. The track between the east crossing on the Misasagi Prefectural Route and Misasagi Station was replaced by the newly constructed underground track.

The voltage of overhead wiring was increased from 600V to 1500V.

Direct operation to Kyoto Shiyakusho-mae Station of the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line started. Model 800 electric cars were put into operation. A departure ceremony was held at Hamaotsu Station, and the first train--an local train bound for Kyoto Shiyakusho-mae Station (model 800 cars of 801-802-803-804)--departed from Hamaotsu Station at 5:12.

On the Otsu Line, the commercial operation of model 80 electric cars, which had been used exclusively for the Keishin Line, model 260 electric cars, which had been used for both the Keishin Line and the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line, and Keihan model 350 electric cars that had been used exclusively for the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line, was terminated and model 600/700 electric cars became used exclusively for the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line. Freight car 122, which had been used for track maintenance, was abandoned. Thanks to the above measures, 100% of Keihan Electric Railway' cars were equipped with air conditioners and 100% of the cars running on the Otsu Line were equipped with regenerating brakes.

As the sub-express train service was terminated, superior trains disappeared from the time schedule of the Otsu Line and only local trains remained.

While the sale of through-tickets between the Otsu Line and the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line started, the sale of through-tickets between the Otsu Line and the Keihan Main Line was terminated. The sale of commuter through-tickets between the Otsu Line and the Keihan Main Line via the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line started.

October 27, 1997: Model 260 cars of 261-262 and a model 122 freight car that ceased to run on the Otsu Line were donated to the Seashore Trolley Museum and the Minnesota Transportation Museum in the U.S., respectively.

August 8, 1998: The Biwako Fireworks Festival was held, and special trains were operated between Misasagi and Hamaotsu only on this particular day.

December 31, 1998: 'Extended operation on New Year's Eve' was implemented for the first time.

June 1, 1999: A train traffic-control system was put into use on the Otsu Line.

May 10, 2001: The commuter ticket price between Sanjo-keihan and Misasagi was revised as the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line adopted a special price for this section.

November, 2001: Railroad crossing obstacle detection devices were installed at the crossings at Moroha-jinja Shrine, Enkoji-michi Road and Juzenji-michi Road.

January 2002: Model 600 electric cars used for the special chartered train ODEN-DENSHA entered into the Keishin Line.

January 15, 2002: Automatic ticket gates were put into operation at the inbound-train platform of Keihan-Yamashina Station, Shinomiya Station and Kamisakaemachi Station during the time zone when the station staff were allocated.

March 1, 2002: 'KANSAI THRU PASS' was introduced to the Keishin Line.

Automatic ticket gates were put into operation at Oiwake Station and Otani Station. Machines for issuance of the starting-station certificate were put into operation at Otani Station and Kamisakaemachi Station. Automatic ticket gates and automatic fare-adjustment machines were introduced at all stations of the Keishin Line (except for certain platforms).

November 30, 2002: All trains became one-man-operated trains (during the time zone of the Biwako Fireworks Festival, however, trains are operated with a conductor dispatched from the Keihan Main Line for the sake of safety).

June 1, 2004: The official website of the Keihan Otsu Line, 'keihan-o2.com,' was launched.

December 31, 2005: 'Extended operation on New Year's Eve' was terminated after this year's operation.

April 1, 2007: The PiTaPa system was introduced.

January 16, 2008: In the wake of the extension of the Nijo - Uzumasa-tenjingawa section of the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line, direct operation of this line into the subway was extended to Uzumasa-tenjingawa.

Stations of the line's existent portion

Only local trains are operated, and every train stops at each station.

As for the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line, refer to the column of the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line.

* The operation kilometers between Misasagi and Keihan-Yamashina before the abolishment of the section between Keishin-Sanjo and Misasagi was 1.3 km.

Abolished stations of the line's existent portion

Kamisekidera Station: Otani - Kamisakaemachi section (abolished on August 15, 1971)
Fudanotsuji Station: Kamisakaemachi - Hamaotsu section (abolished on October 1, 1946)

Lines that formerly connected to the existent portion of this line

Otani Station: The Tokaido Main Line (until July 31, 1921)
Hamaotsu Station: Kojaku Railway (until October 31, 1969)

Stations of the line's abolished portion

Stations indicated by strike-through are those that had been abolished before this portion of the line was abolished. The names of stations are those used at the time of abolishment.

As for the stations of the existent portion of the Misasagi - Hamaotsu section, refer to the column describing "Stations of the line's existent portion."

Misasagi Station became an underground station as the common station with the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line.

Higashiyama-Sanjo Station and Keage Station were located at the same place with the current Higashiyama Station (Kyoto Prefecture) and Keage Station of the subway, respectively.

The current Misasagi Station (under the ground) lies roughly halfway between Hinooka Station and Misasagi Station (on the ground), which have been abolished.

Because no staff was allocated at the stations lied between Higashiyama-Sanjo and Hinooka, passengers couldn't purchase tickets at these stations but were supposed to inform their destinations to a train crew when getting on trains and then purchase tickets on the trains. The above arrangement was required because all stations, including Kujoyama Station, which had a platform, were mere train stops and automatic ticket machines weren't installed at these stations (this arrangement was implemented at nearly all stations of the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line until one-man operation was introduced, because they were either unmanned stations or stations with staff working only in limited time zones).

In the above section of the line, local trains and sub-express trains were operated until the abolishment, and local trains stopped at each station before arriving at Shinomiya Station (the terminal), while sub-express trains passed through the stations that lay between Keishin-Sanjo and Misasagi Station and stopped at each station from Misasagi Station to Hamaotsu Station (the terminal) (refer to the column on the manner of operation until October 11, 1997). The reason for the above was that cars used for sub-express trains weren't equipped with steps necessary for getting on and off at the stations of streetcar sections.

Stations of the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line that substitute the stations of the Keihan Keishin Line

* As the Sanjo-keihan - Misasagi section of the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line was supposed to substitute that of the Keihan Keishin Line, railway facilities of this section were constructed and owned by 'Kyoto Kosoku Railway Co., Ltd.,' a third-sector company in which Kyoto City, Keihan Electric Railway and local firms invested, and leased out to the Kyoto Municipal Transportation Bureau, which was in charge of operation.

Farewell events

Operation of model 80 gallery trains
In conjunction with the abolishment of the Keishin-Sanjo - Misasagi section of the Keishin Line as well as Railway Day (October 14), photographs of electric cars used for the Keishin Line were displayed in the train using Model 80 cars of 85-86, and a specially made sub-sign was attached at the front of the train.

Deadheading of model 260 cars
Model 260 cars of 261-262, which were used for the last day's operation, had been deadheaded from Nishikori-shako Depot to Shinomiya-shako Depot on October 10, 1997, the previous day, because they were scheduled to depart from Shinomiya Station.

The last day

The "farewell" decorated train using model 260 cars of 261-262 departed from Shinomiya Station at 7:24 as a local train bound for Hamaotsu.

Model 80 cars of 83-84 were deadheaded as abandoned cars and arrived at Nishikori-shako Depot at 9:30.

In preparation for the next day's operation, two model 800 cars, which had departed from Hamaotsu Station at 10:05 and an hour later were deadheaded to Shinomiya Station using 600V direct-current wiring and the scene where model 800 cars, which were old-model cars, and model 600/700 cars, which were new-model cars, passed each other was seen in the vicinity of Kamisakaemachi and Oiwake.

Model 350 cars, which had been in Nishikori-shako Depot during the daytime after finishing the operation in the morning rush hours on the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line, were again used on the line in the evening rush hours, but at this time a sub-sign reading, 'Thank you for model 350 cars,' was attached to the model 350 cars of 353-352.

The operation of model 700 electric cars on the Keishin Line was terminated after the sub-express train departed from Keishin-Sanjo Station (time unknown) bound for Hamaotsu.

After 20:00, model 260 cars of 263-264 and 265-266 were operated as sub-express trains from Hamaotsu to Shinomiya, and after entering Shinomiya-shako Depot they were deadheaded to Kujoyama, where they were to be kept.

After 21:00, model 260 cars of 267-280 were operated as a local train from Hamaotsu to Keihan-Yamashina after making a round trip between Keishin-Sanjo and Hamaotsu as a sub-express and were deadheaded from Keihan-Yamashina to Kujoyama.

After 21:00, model 350 cars of 353-352 and 355-354 entered the Keishin Line as out-of-service trains bound for Kujoyama, where they were to be kept.

After the sub-express train bound for Hamaotsu, which used model 260 cars of 261-262, departed Keishin-Sanjo at 22:14 (in fact a few minutes later because the timetable was in shambles), the commercial operation between Keishin-Sanjo and Keihan-Yamashina was suspended due to the work for connecting the track to the Kyoto Municipal Subway Tozai Line conducted in the vicinity of the east crossing on the Misasagi Prefectural Route; subsequently the shuttle service between Keihan-Yamashina and Hamaotsu were conducted. Model 260 cars of 261-262 and model 600 cars of 607-608 were used for the above shuttle operation.

In addition to the special bus service between Keishin-Sanjo and Keihan-Yamashina provided by Keihan Bus, special shuttle service between Keihan-Yamashina and Hamaotsu was provided using model 600 cars as well as model 260 of 261-262, to which the destination board 'Hamaotsu Keihan-Yamashina' was attached.

The use of model 80 cars for commercial operation was terminated after the local train bound for Shinomiya departed from Keishin-Sanjo at 22:06. Although this train was scheduled to use model 80 cars of 81-82, in fact it used the same model cars of 95-96 due to the poor state of the time schedule. Because the place to keep abandoned cars could have changed if nothing had been done, the same model cars of 81-82 were operated between Shinomiya and Hamaotsu as an out-of-service train. The above train was operated without the 'Out of service' sign, since such operation wasn't expected.

A train using model 80 cars of 93-94 was deadheaded to Keishin-Sanjo Station, and ultimately it was the last train with no passenger service that ran between Keishin-Sanjo and Kujoyama (on the exclusive track between Keage and Hinooka). October 12: The use of model 600 electric cars for commercial operation on the Keishin Line was terminated after the local train bound for Hamaotsu departed Keihan-Yamashina at 0:10.

The use of model 260 electric cars for commercial operation on the Otsu Line, including the Keishin Line, was terminated after the local train bound for Shinomiya departed from Hamaotsu at 0:25.

A train using model 260 cars of 261-262 was deadheaded to the exclusive track located in the vicinity of Kujoyama (Keage - Hinooka section), and ultimately it was the last train with no passenger service that ran between the vicinity of Kujoyama (on the exclusive track between Keage and Hinooka) and the vicinity of the east crossing on the Misasagi Prefectural Route.

List of crossings

For details, refer to the column on the kinds of crossings.

Others

Osakayama Tunnel, located between Otani and Kamisakaemachi, is the only mountain tunnel on Keihan's railway lines (there are tunnels on Keihan's cable-car lines). The work of lowering the road bed, which was required in order to change the power collectors from poles to pantographs, was conducted while the trains were in operation.

At the stations of the Otsu Line (the Keishin Line and the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line), through-tickets to the stations of the Kyoto Municipal Subway are available for both ordinary tickets and commuter tickets, but only those for commuter tickets are available to the stations of Keihan lines (Keihan Electric Railway lines other than the Otsu Line). Marutamachi Station (Kyoto Municipal Subway), Shijo Station (Kyoto Municipal Subway), Gojo Station (Kyoto Municipal Subway) and Rokujizo Station, which are included in the fare table displayed at each station of the Otsu Line, are the stations of the Kyoto Municipal Subway, not the stations of Keihan that have same names (three Keihan stations other than Rokujizo Station are expected to be renamed when the Keihan Nakanoshima Line comes into operation). A note to that effect is attached to the fare table. Through-tickets to the Otsu Line are also available at the subway's Rokujizo Station, which is the station for transfer to the Keihan Uji Line.

Passengers who have through-tickets between the Tozai Line's Higashino Station (Kyoto Prefecture) onward and the Otsu Line are required to transfer at Misasagi Station, not at Yamashina (Keihan-Yamashina). Therefore, passengers who have ordinary through-tickets aren't allowed to exit via the ticket gate of Yamashina (Keihan-Yamashina). Moreover, ordinary through-tickets from each station of the Otsu Line to Yamashina with transfer at Misasagi aren't on sale and the fare to Yamashina isn't included in the fare table (the fare itself is set for passengers who have been carried beyond their destination).

The special train Keihan Limited Express using 'Biwako-go' or model 200/260 cars was occasionally operated in the past. However, this train didn't stop at the stations of the Keishin Line.