Keihan Main Line (京阪本線)

The Keihan Main Line (Keihan Hon-sen) is a railway of Keihan Electric Railway connecting Yodoyabashi Station located in Chuo Ward, Osaka City, Osaka Prefecture (Osaka City) with Sanjo Station in Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City, Kyoto Prefecture (Kyoto Prefecture).

Its official denomination isn't 'the Main Line' but 'Keihan Main Line,' the name prefixed by Keihan (the company's abbreviated name), which means transportation connecting Kyoto and Osaka. Together with the lines that make connections with the Keihan Main Line (Keihan Oto Line, Keihan Uji Line and Keihan Katano Line), it's collectively called Keihan Line.

Railway data:

Railway distance (operation kilometer): between Yodoyabashi Station and Sanjo Station: 49.3 km
Track gauge: 1435 mm
Number of stations: 40 (including the starting and final stations), plus one signal station
Double-track section:
Quadruple-track section: between Tenmabashi Station and Neyagawa Signal Station
Double-track section: between Yodoyabashi Station and Tenmabashi Station; between Neyagawa Signal Station and Sanjo Station
Section with electrification: The entire line is electrified (DC1500V).
Block (railway) system: automatic block system
Maximum speed: 110 km/h
Safety system: ATS (Automatic Train Stop system), Keihan-type speed ATS-P

Summary

As the name of the line indicates, it's a railway connecting Osaka and Kyoto, but unlike the JR Kyoto Line (Tokaido Main Line) and Hankyu Kyoto Main Line, which run in parallel with each other, the line proceeds along the south bank of the Yodo-gawa River. The line goes underground in the sections between Yodoyabashi Station and Tenmabashi Station in Osaka City, and between Shichijo Station and Sanjo Station in Kyoto City. The section between Tofukuji Station and Sanjo Station is defined as a tramway (railway) based on the Tramways Act. In the quadruple section between Tenmabashi Station and Neyagawa Signal Station, the local trains and some section express trains go on the outbound line (B-line), while others go on the inbound line (A-line).

The Keihan Nakanoshima Line, which bifurcates from Tenmabashi Station in Osaka City and runs through the Nakanoshima area in Kita Ward, Osaka City (Osaka Prefecture), is under construction (scheduled to be inaugurated on October 19, 2008), and when the line opens it's scheduled to operate in an integrated manner with Keihan Main Line.

The line is relatively well equipped with crossings via overpasses or underpasses and barrier-free measures. Large-scale work has been carried out, and the construction of the underground section in Kyoto City (between Tofukuji Station and Sanjo Station) was completed in 1987, Hirakatashi Station in 1993, and Neyagawashi Station in 1999, respectively.

Owing to the structural restriction of Yodoyabashi Station (it has one platform and three tracks, therefore Platform 1 and Platform 4 have to share the same line), the line as a whole is operated under a tight time schedule. Therefore, many trains have little standing time before doubling back at Yodoyabashi Station or at Demachiyanagi Station.

According to "Tetsudo Yoran (Railway Directory)," this line's starting station is Yodoyabashi Station; however, Sanjo Station is the operational starting station and the train heading for Osaka from Kyoto is denominated as the 'outbound train' and the train heading for the opposite direction, 'inbound train' (the same as the Hankyu Kyoto Main Line).

Types of operations

Most trains that arrive at and depart from Sanjo Station are operated directly to Demachiyanagi Station on the Keihan Oto Line.

Subsequent to the timetable revision of April 16, 2006, many changes have been made as follows: some of the K-Ltd. Express (K-tokkyu) trains operated on the weekday mornings were changed to limited express trains, the section express trains during the daytime restarted the operation for the first time after 26 years, and the trains terminating at Tenmabashi during the daytime were also revived for the first time after 43 years among others; however, the connecting way, in which a faster train makes a connection with a less rapid train waiting at Hirakatashi Station, Tanbabashi Station and Sanjo Station, has not undergone a change. On the other hand, right before and after the revision, many passengers seemed to be discontented due to the increased number of express and semi-express trains that started doubling back at Tenmabashi Station during the morning rush, and the decreased convenience at Kayashima Station and Kozenji Station owing to the discontinued semi-express during the daytime; so, on January 27, 2007, the timetable was again revised in order to cope with these problems (revision on the repartition of the shuttle trains that were doubling back at Tenmabashi Station and those that arrived at and departed from Yodoyabashi Station during the morning rush, the downgrading of express trains between 15:00 and 16:00 to semi-express, etc.).

The details by type of train are described below. Also please refer to the sections of Keihan Limited Express and K-Ltd. Express (K-tokkyu).

K-Ltd. Express (K-tokkyu)

The highest-category trains on the Keihan Main Line
This was newly established by the timetable revision on September 6, 2003 (the operation started on September 8). However, this type makes a stop at the same stations as a limited express train did before the revision; that is, this type was created because limited express trains started making stops at more stations than before. The K-Ltd. Express is only operated between Yodoyabashi Station and Demachiyanagi Station, and in the morning the train for Yodoyabashi also makes a stop at Hirakatashi Station, as it did before.

Since this type is only operated on weekdays except in the daytime, serving as a commuter limited express, on Sundays and holidays it is not operated. During the evening rush on weekdays, the train makes a connection with an express train waiting at Tanbabashi Station. Except for the outbound trains in the morning, this type practically goes nonstop between Kyoto Station and Osaka Station. Some of the trains in the morning are operated with three-door cars, and particularly during the peak rush hour an effort is made to avoid the use of two-door cars as outbound trains.

During the morning rush, K-Ltd. Express (K-tokkyu) 'Orihime' is also operated from Kisaichi Station on the Keihan Katano Line to Yodoyabashi. This train is five cars long because of the limited effective length of the platforms on the Katano Line.

During the morning rush on weekdays, outbound trains become very crowded from Hirakatashi Station, and some cars need even train pushers (oshiya) to squeeze the passengers into the cars.

During the morning rush, the first car to the Demachiyanagi direction is designated as a women-only car.

Limited express

This is the principal higher-category train on the Keihan Main Line. This type is operated during the daytime on weekdays and the entire day on Saturdays and holidays, when the K-Ltd. Express isn't operated.

Following the timetable revision on April 16, 2006, its hours of operation were extended and the operation of a women-only car was established with the same time schedule as the K-Ltd. Express, which was operated from 9:00 to 9:30 on weekday mornings. Since this type is the first arrival and the highest-category train at Hirakatashi Station and to the east in the current timetable, sometimes it becomes extremely crowded.

Among the users, the K-Ltd. Express and express trains are well known as 'Keihan express (Keihan tokkyu).'
As for the rolling stock, limited express trains mainly used type-Keihan Electric Railway Series 3000 and Keihan Electric Railway Series 8000, which are equipped with TV cars and two-stories cars (double-deckers), but with the timetable revision made on September 6, 2003, about one-third of the trains became coupled with three-door cars during the daytime operation due to the limited availability of rolling stock. In the case of the three-door limited express trains, the trains of the Keihan Electric Railway Series 9000 (furnished with semi-cross seats) are mainly used, but since the three-door limited express trains are scheduled to be allocated for an intensive use during the morning rush, 10 trains of Keihan Electric Railway Series 7200 or Keihan Electric Railway Series 6000 made up of eight all-long-seat cars are also regularly used in the weekday mornings (eight outbound trains in total of K-Ltd. Express and limited express, and two inbound trains in total of K-Ltd. Express and limited express).

Nearly all the trains, including three-door cars in the afternoon or later, are operated with cross-seat cars, but when the trains of Series 9000 are in the periodical inspection or parts change, the cars furnished with long seats are sometimes used instead, even in the afternoon or later. On the timetable at the stations, whether the train has two-door cars or with three-door cars can be distinguished by a small mark placed next to the departure time.

Because the route has many curves, the average time required between Demachiyanagi Station and Yodoyabashi Station is 53 minutes, which is a big difference from the time of the Special Rapid running on the JR Kyoto Line, which connects Osaka and Kyoto in 28 minutes. However, the time required between Kyobashi Station and Shichijo Station is about 40 minutes.

Nowadays, the trains make stops at Hirakatashi Station and Kuzuha Station, but until around 2003 the trains would basically pass nonstop at these stations (the trains made stops at Hirakatashi Station only in the morning). However, when the Kurawanka Fireworks Festival was held on the final Sunday of August every year, a special train would stop at Hirakatashi Station (in 1998 or before, the train would stop at Kuzuha Station).

The background of the rollsign of a limited express train is red. When the timetable was revised in September, 2003, the rollsign became a red background with white letters. Before then, while in the case of the Series 8000 the letters were written in red on a black background, in the case of the Series 3000 the letters were written in red on a white background, and when the series was renovated in 1995 the rollsign became the same design as the Series 8000, with red letters on a black background.
The rollsign with red letters on a black background, which was used in 2003 or before, is now adopted in the Series 2600 and is used by 'K-Ltd. Express (K-tokkyu) Orihime.'
The actual rollsign, with white letters and a red background, has the same color combination as the rollsign that the Series 6000 Express trains carried (no English letters, though) at the time of manufacture.

Express

It is operated nearly all day. During the daytime, the trains are mainly operated between Yodoyabashi Station and Hirakatashi Station (some trains are operated as semi-express), and the rest of the day the trains are mainly operated between Yodoyabashi Station and Demachiyanagi Station. During rush hours, the trains that double back at Tenmabashi Station and the trains that arrive at and depart from Kuzuha Station are also operated. During the daytime, all express (and sub-express) trains make connections with local trains at Moriguchishi Station, and wait for a limited express train to pass at Korien Station. Except for the daytime on weekdays, and from 11:00 to 15:00 on Saturdays and holidays, this type is operated between Yodoyabashi Station and Demachiyanagi Station, and on Saturdays and holidays, with some exceptions, it arrives the first at Yodoyabashi Station and Sanjo Station (in some cases at Demachiyanagi Station) (on weekdays, the through-trains between Kyoto and Osaka are passed by K-Ltd. Express (K-tokkyu) at a station in between except for the inbound trains in the early morning and during the morning rush, and some trains in the late evening). During the morning rush and the late evening, the train does not stop at Moriguchishi Station or Hirakata-koen Station. Although the train is sometimes operated with seven cars, it's mainly operated with eight cars because of the heavy congestion at Osaka-guchi (particularly during the time slot when the K-Ltd. Express is operated). Although the train runs nearly nonstop between Kyobashi Station and Neyagawashi Station (the train goes nonstop in the early morning and in the late evening, and the rest of the day it stops only at Moriguchishi Station), at the Neyagawa Station and to the north, the train makes a stop at almost half the stations, and that is why until the timetable was revised in September 2003 there was a big difference between limited express and express in terms of the time required.

As of 1964, after Yodoyabashi Station was inaugurated, the train made stops at Shijo Station (current Gion-shijo Station), Shichijo Station, Fushimi-inari Station, Tanbabashi Station, Chushojima Station, Yawatacho Station (currently Yawatashi Station), Hirakatashi Station, Korien Station, Kyobashi Station, Tenmabashi Station and Kitahama Station (additionally, during the daytime at Hirakata-koen Station), which meant that train at that time made a stop at nearly the same number of stations as the Rapid Express projected to be introduced in October 2008 (it's scheduled that the Rapid Express train will stop at (in addition to the above-mentioned stations) Kuzuha Station, Neyagawashi Station, Moriguchishi Station, and pass nonstop at Fushimi-inari Station, Yawatashi Station and Hirakata-koen Station).

In some time slots, when putting into or setting out of the depot or they are available for other purposes, the Series 3000 and 8000, which are usually used for limited express service undertake the operation. Limited express trains used for service not only undertake the operation of putting the train into and setting it out of the depot in the early morning and in the late evening, but they also run between Yodoyabashi Station and Hirakatashi Station as express from 9:00 to 11:00, the time slot after the morning commuter hours of outbound trains on weekdays finish, and for this service one inbound train and three outbound trains are operated in addition to another one, which is used as an express for Demachiyanagi Station starting from Yodoyabashi Station. According the time schedule, these trains are to be replaced by trains with long-seat cars at Yodoyabashi Station or Demachiyanagi Station when they double back (a similar replacement is practiced between the Series 9000 and the Series 6000, as well as among the trains of the Keihan Electric Railway Series 7200). When limited express service is provided by express trains on weekday mornings between Yodoyabashi Station and Hirakatashi Station, these trains, in the case of up trains as well as down trains, are passed by a limited express train with long-seat cars at Korien Station. Additionally, sub-express and local trains are used for this service, mainly in the early morning and late evening (in the past, these types were used as outbound section express during the weekdays, but since the timetable revision of January 2007 they haven't been used).

When a horse race is held at Kyoto Race Course (including the off-the-field period), the train stops at Yodo Station. Because Yodo Depot is located a short distance from the Yodo Station yard toward the direction of Osaka Station, when express trains are operated between Demachiyanagi Station and Yodo Station in the early morning and late evening, and the special trains for Tenmabashi Station and Demachiyanagi Station from Yodo Station are operated during the period of horseracing, they exceptionally permit the passengers to get on and off at the depot. Express trains, which are operated between Demachiyanagi Station and Yodo Station in the early morning and the late evening, were operated as semi-express trains until September 2003.

With the partial timetable revision of January 27, 2007, the express train running between Yodoyabashi Station and Hirakatashi Station at the time slot from 15:00 to 16:00 on weekdays was degraded to a semi-express. This is a measure for the students who return home after school to take a train at Kozenji Station.

The rollsign is a vermilion background with white letters. The actual background color, vermilion, has been used since 1989, when the Series 7000 was introduced and English lettering was added to the rollsign. Before then, a red-background rollsign with white letters was used but without any indication in English (the background color is the same red that the limited express has used since 2003). Until the Series 6000 was introduced, the rollsign was a white background with red letters. In the past, when the trains didn't carry the rollsign at the front face, they used the round-shaped directional signboard, and to distinguish the trains those between Yodoyabashi Station and Sanjo Station used the red-background board with white letters while those between Yodoyabashi and Kuzuha Station carried the white background board with red letters.

Sub-express

Basically, this type of train is operated except for daytime hours. The train is principally operated between Yodoyabashi Station and Kuzuha Station, but during rush hours some through-trains connecting Kyoto and Osaka arrive at and depart from Yodo Station in the early morning and late evening. During a certain time slot in the daytime, instead of an express this type of train, which arrives at and departs from Hirakatashi Station, is operated. Also, the train always makes a connection with a local train at Moriguchishi Station. During the daytime on weekdays, the sub-express train that starts from Hirakatashi Station makes a connection with a section express at Kayashima Station. Some trains are eight cars long, but the through trains between Kyoto and Osaka are operated with seven cars (because Chushojima Station or the further stations at which the local (semi-express) train stop only permit trains with fewer than seven cars). The train that is positioned as a higher category middle-distance train provides direct operation mainly in the quadruple-track sections, while in other sections it makes a stop at each station. The train passes nonstop at Moriguchishi Station from early morning to the morning rush. Recently, the through operation of the semi-express between Kyoto and Osaka tends to be increasing, particularly during the rush hours. However, from September 2003 to April 2006, through semi-express trains between Kyoto and Osaka were operated.

In the 1980s the sub-express was operated only between Yodoyabashi Station and Yodo Station; there were no through-trains running on the entire line. With the timetable revision of 1989, the sub-express began operating in Kyoto-guchi, but the sub-express operating from the Osaka area was limited to Yodo Station; however, in the 1990s the sub-express between Yodoyabashi station and Kuzuha Station started the all-day operation and at the same time the sub-express between Demachiyanagi Station and Kuzuha Station/Yodo Station started operating in the evening or later. Following the revision made in 2003, the train between Chushojima Station and Demachiyanagi Station was changed to the local train, and a new sub-express was set between Yodoyabashi Station and Demachiyanagi Station, which is still in operation.

During the evening rush during the weekdays, the sub-express 'Hikoboshi' proceeding directly from the Katano Line is operated. This train is five cars long because of the limited effective length of the platforms on the Katano Line. On July 7 every year, a special K-Ltd. Express 'Orihime (weaver star = Vega)' is operated in the evening after the folk story Tanabata (tale of two-stars rendezvous), and at Kisaichi Station an event is held to let Orihime (weaver star = Vega) and Hikoboshi (cowherd star = Altair) meet once a year.

The rollsign has a blue background. Until the introduction of the Series 6000, it was a white background with blue letters. When the directional signboard was used, it was a round-shaped board with a white background on which "Sub-express (準急)" was written in blue (the destination was written in black letters) (the trains that arrived at and departed from Tenmabashi Station used the yellow background board with blue letters that read "Sub-express(準急)").

Section express

During the daytime, this type of train is operated between Tenmabashi Station (partially bound for Yodoyabashi Station) and Kayashima Station. The section express trains operated in the daytime connect with local trains for Yodoyabashi Station at Kyobashi Station, except for those bound for Yodoyabashi Station. However, the trains operated on weekdays and those on holidays have a big difference in the number of users. Therefore, the trains on weekdays are eight cars long, while on Saturdays and holidays the trains made up of five cars occupy the major part of the operation. By stopping at every station from Moriguchishi Station eastward, the section express train not only secures the rapid and convenient service at Kadomashi Station and other stations in the vicinity, because Kadomashi Station, being a transfer station for the Osaka Monorail Line, has no other platform than one for the outbound track (for local trains), but the train also complements the service at Moriguchishi Station, at which neither express nor sub-express trains make stops in the morning; moreover, the operation of this type of train arriving at and departing from Hirakatashi Station, Korien Station and Kuzuha Station is provided. In the evening or later, there were many section express trains before, but most of them were upgraded to sub-express trains, and the time slot when trains make a stop at Moriguchishi Station was also extended; therefore, an reduced number of section express trains are operated under the present timetable. On weekdays from 22:00 or later, since there is no service of outbound sub-express trains, several section express trains, mainly arriving at and departing from Kuzuha Station, are operated. Due to the capacity of the track allocated to express trains, during the morning rush there are some trains that run on the outbound track along the entire line (three section express trains that start at Moriguchishi Station from 8:00 to 9:00 in the morning, heading for Yodoyabashi Station). As these trains have to run in concordance with the velocity of the local train running ahead, the required time between Moriguchishi Station and Kyobashi Station is two or three minutes longer than that of the trains going on the track for express trains. The special timetable used by the drivers covers the schedule up to Yodo Station.

The rollsign has a green background. For a long time an abbreviated description '区急' (which meant 'section express') was written on it, but since 2008 those trains that changed the rollsign to cope with the operation on the Nakanoshima Line have carried the rollsign with the full letters '区間急行'(section express) without abbreviation. During the days in which the trains used a destination board on the front face, section express trains carried the common board used for local trains with a letter meaning 'Express' written in red below the name of the destination (it was possible to distinguish the type of train because local and section express trains used a square-shaped board while express and sub-express trains used a round-shaped board).

Local trains

During the daytime, the local trains are operated between Yodoyabashi Station and Demachiyanagi Station, and during the other hours operation is basically provided between Yodoyabashi Station and Kayashima Station/ Sanjo Station/ Demachiyanagi Station, and between Yodo Station and Sanjo Station/ Demachiyanagi Station. During the daytime, each train connects with an express train (sometimes with a sub-express) at Moriguchishi Station and with a limited express train at Hirakatashi Station/ Tanbabashi Station/ Sanjo Station. In the morning and evening, section local trains are also operated in the Kyoto area. Section (local) trains in Kyoto-guchi, or through-trains between Kyoto and Osaka are either seven or five cars long. On April 16, 2006, the direct trains for Demachiyanagi Station were revived after three years' absence (some trains arrive at and depart from Sanjo Station or Tenmabashi Station). On the other hand, in Kyoto-guchi the section trains that once doubled back at Kuzuha Station during the evening rush on weekdays have disappeared, and some of them are incorporated in the operation of the sub-express route. Until the revision of the timetable in 2000, there was a local train that went through to the Uji Line. This train changed its direction of movement at Chushojima Station because of the wire setup. After the route division, the trains arrived at and departed from Chushojima Station until the timetable was revised in 2003.

There was little difference in time between express and local trains in the section from Korien Station to the north, until the timetable revision was made in June 2000, because the local train was not passed by the express train that came up from behind (although, the local train made a stop at Hirakatashi Station and Fukakusa Station in order to let it pass). Even in the present time schedule, after making a connection with an express train waiting at Moriguchishi Station, the train arrives first at Hirakatashi Station without being passed by another express coming up from behind (the outbound train arrives first at Moriguchishi Station after departing from Hirakatashi Station). In this section, the train was passed by a limited express train at Owada Station and in the vicinity of Morishoji Station.

During the weekday morning rush, one inbound train bound for Korien Station allocates the last two cars as priority cars for female students and schoolchildren.

Numbers of trains

During the daytime the trains operated an hour are as follows:

Between Yodoyabashi Station and Tenmabashi Station: limited express 6; express (sub-express) 6; local train 6

Between Tenmabashi Station and Kayashima Station: limited express 6; express (sub-express) 6; section express 6; local train 6

Between Kayashima Station and Hirakatashi Station: limited express 6; express (sub-express) 6; local train 6

Between Hirakatashi Station and Demachiyanagi Station: limited express 6, local train 6

Special trains/time schedules

Special trains during the horse-racing events at Kyoto Race Course

During the horseracing at Kyoto Race Course, the operation of the sub-express train is extended to Yodo Station, the nearest station to the course (basically, the sub-express train is regularly operated between Yodoyabashi and Kuzuha stations). Until the timetable was revised on April 16, 2006, out of those trains that extended their operations and ran between Hirakatashi Station and Yodo Station, the train that operated between Hirakatashi and Yodo stations as an express was denominated as 'Gallop' and was thus indicated on the rollsigns and headmarks. In the past, it was operated as 'Yodo Rapid Train Turfy' (it made a stop at the following stations: Yodoyabashi, Kitahama, Tenmabashi, Kyobashi, Moriguchishi and Yodo). Sometimes a special express train bound for Sanjo Station also operated toward the Kyoto area. This special express is also called 'Umakyu (Horse Express),' and during the time when the destination board was used it carried a board with a horseshoe painted on it. Since the timetable revision of April 16, 2006, the number of special trains has been largely reduced, but depending on the scale of the horse race, and only for the return trip, express trains for Tenmabashi Station and Sanjo Station are sometimes operated.

Once in the past, the spectators leaving the track after the race would stampede to the platform at Yodo Station, and some limited express trains that normally didn't stop at the station had to make urgent stops for the sake of security.
Also, on some Sundays of October and November 2003 (four days in total) soon after the drastic timetable revision made in September 2003, the operation was undertaken with a 'special timetable for holidays.'
With this timetable, the operation of each type of train is increased in the morning and in the evening, and particularly in the evening (from 16:00 to 17:00), one special limited express train from Sanjo for Tenmabashi, one special express train from Yodo for Tenmabashi, and one 'Gallop' from Yodo for Yodoyabashi are added for operation every 10 minutes, and with the regular trains, in the quadruple-track section (the outbound track between Yodo and Kayashima) five trains were operated on each track (with an average interval of two minutes) in 10 minutes, which was comparable to the number used during the morning rush. Subsequently, this timetable was implemented only on May 2, 2004, but since then it has not been used.

Uji Kaisoku rapid train

Please refer to the section of Keihan Uji Line - Uji Kaisoku Rapid.

Year-end and New Year season

During the first three days of the New Year, the line particularly reinforces its capacity for transporting passengers for New Year's visits to shrines, and from New Year's Day (strictly speaking from the late night of New Year's Eve) to January 3 (January 5, depending on the year), the trains are operated under the special 'time schedule for the Year-End and New Year Holidays,' which is different from the ordinary time schedule.
During the year-end and New Year season, this timetable is announced on the Keihan Electric Railway' website and in its public-relations magazine, 'K-press.'

From the late evening of New Year's Eve to the morning of New Year's Day, express trains are operated every 10 to 20 minutes during all night (New Year's Eve timetable) (local trains are operated between Yodoyabashi Station and Sanjo Station at an interval of 20 minutes, while on the Katano Line and Uji Line the local trains are also operated at a 20-minute interval). The express trains stop at stations with the same pattern as those that are operated during the daytime (stopping at Moriguchishi and Hirakata-koen). All-night operation on the Keihan Lines is somewhat more frequently practiced in comparison with the other lines of other railway companies in the Kansai district. Even so, the trains, particularly express trains, become very crowded and there are passengers who ask for the operation of all-night limited express trains. In fiscal year 2007, express and local trains (both running between Yodoyabashi Station and Demachiyanagi Station) will be operated every 15 to 20 minutes, and the operation of local trains will be extended to Demachiyanagi Station, although that of express trains will be reduced in number.

On the other hand, during the first three days of the new year, a limited express train, an express train and a local train are operated every 10 minutes during the daytime. In fiscal year 2006, limited express and express trains were operated between Yodoyabashi Station and Demachiyanagi Station, and local trains were operated between Yodoyabashi Station and Sanjo Station. The express train waits for a limited express train to pass at Hirakatashi Station. The characteristic of this time schedule is that limited express trains are not operated in the morning and in the evening and the number of trains is slightly reduced overall, as compared to the ordinary time. Before 2003, limited express trains (including spare trains) were at full-capacity operation, and the trains of the Series 9000 also had to be used. Before the introduction of the Series 9000, general trains were sometimes also used as auxiliaries for the limited express. Among the general trains (except the series 6000, 7000 and 7200) there were trains that ran with a limited-express symbol (a pigeon mark) on the front face until 1983. Also, there were occasions in which additional limited express trains ran from Sanjo in the evening.

Gozan no Okuribi (Mountain Bonfire)
On August 16, when Daimonji Okuribi (the Great Bonfire Event) is celebrated, the weekday timetable is applied except for when this day falls on Saturday or Sunday. However, express trains (including those that arrive at and depart from Kuzuha Station) are operated up to Demachiyanagi Station. On the other hand, some of the local trains that arrive at and depart from Demachiyanagi Station shuttle at Sanjo Station (to concentrate the eight-car trains at Demachiyanagi Station). From 20:00 or later, special trains such as the K-Ltd. Express and express trains are operated. The service at the Imadegawa gate of Demachiyanagi Station is extended (until 21:30) in order to alleviate the congestion.

When there is a big event celebrated along the line, such as the Gion Festival, Uji-gawa River Fireworks Display and Tenjin Festival, the service is reinforced by operating special trains (or extending the operational section of regular trains), particularly at night. During the tourist season, the special limited express is operated between Yodoyabashi Station/ Tenmabashi Station and Sanjo Station/ Demachiyanagi Station, respectively. Compared with other lines, this line provides a relatively large number of special trains, but in recent years the number of special trains has decreased. Before, the special train without a specific denomination carried a head mark '臨,' meaning 'special,' but since the revision in September 2003 this mark is only allowed for the special limited express trains.

When a big event is celebrated, in the case of limited express trains and K-Ltd. Express trains operated at night, their cars (generally two-door cars) are sometimes replaced by three-door cars.

Express train (section operation)

From 1938 to 1969, a kind of section express that was different from today's type was operated between Fukakusa Station/ Yawatacho (currently Yawatashi) Station/ Hirakatashi Station and Yodoyabashi Station.

Formerly section express

When introduced in 1938, this type of train was operated between Tenmmabashi Station and Hirakata-higashiguchi Station (currently Hirakatashi Station), and stopped at the following stations: Gamo (currently Kyobashi), Kadoma (currently unused), Kayashima, Neyagawa (currently Neyagawashi), Korien and Hirakata (currently Hirakata-koen). It was lower than the sub-express in type, but it even went nonstop at Moriguchi Station (currently Moriguchishi Station), which was a sub-express stop at that time. Its operation was discontinued during the war, but after the war, in 1947, it was restarted. After that, with the timetable revision in 1960, it came to its present form as a section express, being integrated with the types of local trains that until then went nonstop between Kyobashi Station and Moriguchi Station.

A-Express

On the other hand, other than the section express, express trains that had operated between Tenmmabashi Station and Hirakatashi Station during rush hours were extended in 1952 to run up to Yawatacho Station and Fukakusa Station by stopping at all stations from Hirakata-koen Station and to the north. This express train carried a type board with the letter '急' (Express) written in red against a red-rimmed white background (and on both sides the destination was indicated). This type board was the same as that used on express trains set up in later years, which arrived at and departed from Kuzuha Station (however, the stops of those express trains are the same as for the express trains that run through the entire line). Sub-express and this type (A-express) only made a difference in whether the train went nonstop or not at Toyono Station (closed in 1963) and Kozenji Station, and therefore, by the timetable revision made following the relocation of Kyobashi Station in 1969, this type was integrated into the sub-express and was eventually discontinued.
This express, which operated in a limited section, was called 'A-express' because it was numbered together with the prefix 'A.'
At that time, in 1964, it was operated between Hirakatashi Station and Yodoyabashi Station at the peak of the morning rush-hour period (during this time slot, the section express arrived at and departed from Korien Station, Kayashima Station or Moriguchishi Station, except for a few trains) and in the route between Yodoyabashi Station and Yawatacho (the trains are stored in Fukakusa Depot), among others, in the evening and later.

Sub-express operated in Kyoto-guchi

This type of train was operated during evening rush hours and at night from September 27, 1989 to September 5, 2003 (the operation section was from Kuzuha Station or Yodo Station to Demachiyanagi Station, and the train made stops at the following stations: all stations between Kuzuha Station and Chushojima Station, Tanbabashi Station and Fushimi-inari Station, and all stations between Shichijo Station and Demachiyanagi Station). With the timetable revision of 2000, this train operated between Kuzuha Station and Demachiyanagi Station during evening rush hours was downgraded to a local train. This was originally a type of express that was operated directly from Sanjo Station to the Keihan Uji Line, and therefore many trains of this type were in service with five cars, probably maintaining the original composition. Since the timetable revision of September 6, 2003, the operation of its old schedule that was practiced in 1989 and before, has recovered in which the train made a stop at every station from Kayashima and to the east.

However, the sub-express that proceeded from the Osaka area sometimes went nonstop at several stations from Hirakata-higashiguchi Station (currently Hirakatashi Station) and to the east around 1937 when the designation of types was carried out, and after the war, since the restart of the operation for a while, from Chushojima Station eastward.

Through express and sub-express to Nara Electric Railway and the Kintetsu Kyoto Line

Until 1968, direct express and sub-express trains to the Nara Electric Railway (since 1963, Kintetsu Kyoto Line) were operated between Tanbabashi Station and Sanjo Station (the express train was designated after the merger with Kintetsu Corporation). Rolling stock of both Nara Electric Railway and Kintetsu Railway was used, and express trains as well as the sub-express trains made stops at the same stations as the direct express trains running between Kyoto and Osaka. For details, please refer to the section regarding the direct operation with Nara Electric Railway and Keihan Electric Railway.

Local trains (with nonstop stations)

With the timetable revision of 1960, while the local through-trains started making stops at all stations and the trains that made shuttle operations at Hirakatashi Station, after switching them to those running nonstop between Kyobashi Station and [INCOMPLETE TEXT]
And as for these stations located along that section, the local train that shuttled at Hirakatashi Station would stop. These two local trains were called 'local' in the announcement without any distinction. With the timetable revision of 1960, while the local through-trains started making stops at all stations and the trains that made a shuttle operation at Hirakatashi Station, after switching them to those running nonstop between Kyobashi Station and Moriguchi Station, were designated as section express trains following their integration into the aforementioned 'section express'; consequently, the local trains that had nonstop stations disappeared.
Among the crew, it was also called 'direct.'

History

When the line was inaugurated, it was a route with many curves because one-third of the Keihan Line was denominated as a tramway according to the applied regulation (Tramways Ordinance, later Tramways Act) and it was laid along the ancient route to Kyoto, threading through posting stations.
To date, various reforms have been undertaken, such as conversion from the shared tracks to exclusive tracks, and the construction of overhead crossings, and currently a new reform plan is ongoing (the survey expense has been allocated in the national budget of FY 2007 for an elevation plan of the section from Korien Station to Hirakatashi Station); however, since the section where the train is permitted to increase the speed up to 110 km/h is only the straight-line section between Kyobashi Station and Moriguchishi Station and still many curves remain throughout the line, the company is sometimes sarcastically called the 'Keihan Electric Curved-Railway Company.'

When the line was inaugurated, the company could not secure the land to construct stations in the central part of the city either in Kyoto or in Osaka, and later the line was gradually extended toward both centers. For example, the section in the Kyoto area between Gojo Station and Sanjo Station was constructed using the special permission that Kyoto City had acquired to construct Kyoto City Trams under a borrowing arrangement in which Keihan rented the site from Kyoto City (for details, please see the section on Keihan Electric Railway Series 60). On the other hand, in the Osaka area, at the outset the company had a plan to construct a station at Koraibashi as the starting point; however, it was obliged to change it to Tenmabashi under the pressure imposed by Osaka City (see the section on Municipal Monroe Doctrine), and since then the line's extension to the center of the city has been the company's long-cherished wish. During the construction, initially shared operation with Osaka City Trams was planned in cooperation with Hanshin Electric Railways, but because of some inconvenience such as the difference in rolling-stock specifications, Osaka City refused and the plan failed. After that, another plan was formulated to jointly construct a general terminal station shared with the Shinkeihan Line (described later) anticipating the extension to Umeda, which was not achieved either (see the section on Keihan Umeda Line), and finally in 1963, after roughly half a century, the line succeeded in extending its operation up to Yodoyabashi Station through the use of underground tracks.

The inauguration of the line was scheduled on April 1, 1910, but it was postponed till the 15th due to the failure of Moriguchi Electric Power Substation, among others. On April 15, although the line was finally inaugurated, the starting train broke down, paralyzing traffic from the beginning, and the line had a very difficult time, being bitterly criticized by the papers of that time, etc. Therefore, in order to clean up its negative image the line offered passengers an extraordinary discount with half-price fare during the three days up to the 18th, which would be an unthinkable service nowadays.

The required time between Tenmabashi Station and Gojo Station (it was not located in the actual place but in Shiokoji, near Kyoto Station), which was 1 hour and 40 minutes when the line was opened, was shortened to 1 hour and 30 minutes in July of the same year, and then to 1 hour 20 minutes in 1912, at the beginning of the Taisho period. In order to further reduce the required time, in 1914 the first express train in Japan started operating. Initially, it was operated nonstop between Tenmabashi Station and Gojo Station late at night, and completed the run in an hour. From the next year, the line introduced traffic signals for the first time in Japan and extended the operation hours to the daytime. After the line was extended to Sanjo Station, the train began making stops at Shijo Station, but the required time didn't change and was maintained at an hour between Tenmabashi and Sanjo. From 1916, this express was upgraded to the superior express (Sai-Kyuko) category, thus creating another type of express that stopped at major stations. However, the superior express was discontinued within four months after this denomination change. Please also see the section on the predecessor of Keihan Limited Express.

In 1927, a Keihan Electric Railway Series 600 train (the first generation), named Romance Car Keihan Electric Railway was introduced and operated as an express. This means that the first company that used the denomination 'Romance Car' for its train was not Odakyu Electric Railway but in fact Keihan Electric Railway.

After that, Keihan Electric Railway formulated a project to construct a rapid railway connecting Kyoto and Osaka along the right bank of the Yodo-gawa River, and established the Shinkeihan Railway (new Keihan Railway) in 1922. In 1928, when the Shinkeihan Line (currently Hankyu Kyoto Line) began operating between Tenjinbashi Station and Saiin Station, the company adopted a policy in which the Keihan Main Line concentrated its service on the daily users along the line, leaving the service for through-commuters between Kyoto and Osaka to the Shinkeihan Line. Therefore, on this line any train denominated Limited Express other than 'Keihan Electric Railway Series 60' train was set up during the early Showa period. However, during the war the Keihan Electric Railway was swallowed by the Keihanshin Express Railway (the name was changed to Hankyu Railway in 1973), and after the war, in 1949, part of the Keihan Electric Railway restarted its business, handing over the Shinkeihan Line (the name of which was then changed to the Kyoto Main Line) to Hankyu Railway and began competing with other railway lines to attract commuters between Kyoto and Osaka by introducing limited express trains.

During the postwar period from 1945 until 1968, it also practiced mutual operation with the Nara Electric Railway Line (currently the Kintetsu Kyoto Line). Please refer to the section on the direct operation of Nara Electric Railway and Keihan Electric Railway.

In 1978, the denomination of the section from Tofukuji Station southward was changed from a tramway, as defined by the Tramways Act, to a local railway as defined based on the local Railways Act; however, the section between Tofukuji Station and Sanjo Station, where work to take the tracks underground was once planned, has remained unchanged for the convenience of procedures, and nowadays it's still denominated as a tramway. This section, which ran along the strip between the Kamo-gawa River (of the Yodo-gawa River system) and the Lake Biwa Canal (Biwako Sosui), was taken underground in 1987. On July 15 of the same year (1987), torrential rains that washed out the provisional bank of the Shira-kawa River poured into the Kamo-gawa River, which flows along the north side of Shijo Station, and the water flooded into the underground section, inundating Gojo Station.

Four ground-level crossings with Kyoto City Trams or with Osaka City Trams remained (crossings at Shijo, Shichijo Fushimi-inari in Kyoto and Katamachi in Osaka), but the ground crossing with Osaka City Trams as well as those with Kyoto City Trams disappeared when the former was discontinued on December 18, 1968 and the latter on September 30, 1978, respectively. The increase of the overhead wire voltage to 1500V was made in 1983, although it was considerably late among the big private railway companies. One reason was that the line had the above-mentioned ground crossings with these trams (both of them were operated at 600V).

Shidan-Kaido the first, second and third gun-do (three military roads for military use) situated in the section between Fukakusa Station and Fujimori Station were equipped with overhead crossings that permitted these roads to cross over the line, in order not to interrupt the maneuvers of the 16th Division of the Imperial Japanese Ground Army (Japanese Army) before the war (it has since been relocated to the suburbs as the posts of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF); one in the vicinity of Obaku Station (Kyoto Prefecture) on the Keihan Uji Line and the other in the vicinity of Okubo Station on the Kintetsu Kyoto Line).

Chronology

April 15, 1910: The section between Tenmabashi Station and Gojo Station opened.

June 20, 1910: Momoyama Station opened.

December 15, 1910: Kozenji Station opened. Kyobashi Station (the first generation, located literally in the vicinity of Kyo-bashi Bridge) was closed.

December 16, 1910: Inari Station changed its name to Fukakusa Station and Inari-shindo Station to Inari Station.

April 26, 1913: Daibutsu-mae Station was closed.

April 27, 1913: Shichijo Station opened.

July 29, 1913: Momoyama Station changed its name to Tanbabashi Station.

May 15, 1914: A nonstop express train started to be operated as the final train of the day.

April 1, 1915: Three-position color-light automatic block signals were introduced for the first time in Japan. Two shuttle operations of express train started in the morning and evening commuter hours.

October 27, 1915: The operation was extended to the section between Gojo Station and Sanjo Station. The express trains began making stops at Shijo Station.

November 11, 1915: Fushimi Station changed its name to Fushimi-momoyama Station.

April 1, 1916: The conventional express train (kyuko) was upgraded to a superior express (Sai-Kyuko) and started the operation of the express train that would stop only at major stations with intervals of 24 minutes.

August 1, 1916: The superior express was abolished.

January 17, 1917: A fire broke out at Fukakusa Depot, and 19 cars (15 cars of Type 1, 4 electric freight cars, among others) were destroyed by the fire.

March 1, 1918: Moriguchi Depot started operating. It was relocated from Amijima Depot.

December 1, 1918: Shiokoji Station discontinued the passenger service. It was converted to a freight station.

March 23, 1922: Undojo-mae Station opened between Neyagawa Station and Kori Station. At that time, it was a provisional station only operated when the Keihan Ground was used for events.

November 12, 1922: Undojo-mae Station became a permanent station.

October 1, 1924: The operation of two-car trains started.

May 3, 1927: The rehabilitation of Uji-gawa Bridge and Kizu-gawa Bridge was completed (the old structures of these bridges were reused to construct Hirakata-ohashi Bridge).

July 12, 1928: The shared track of 1.856 km between Kuzuha Station and Hashimoto Station became an exclusive track for the line, following the improvement of National Route 1.

May 25, 1929: Gotenyama Station opened.

October 1, 1930: Express trains began making stops at Kori Station.

July 21, 1931: Seven sections, including the three shared-track sections totaling 2.5 km between Kadoma Station and Kayashima Station, and the shared track of 1.5 km between Hirakata-koen Station and Korien Station, came to have the exclusive track.

October 14, 1931: The section (known as "the seven curves of Noe") between Gamo Station (current Kyobashi Station) and Moriguchi Station (current Moriguchishi Station) was straightened and equipped with an exclusive track. The section around the current Noe and Doi was elevated. The Noe, Sekime, Shin-morishoji, Morishoji and Takii stations opened. Noe and Morishoji stations on the old line were closed.

December 28, 1931: Morishoji Station changed its name to Morishoji-Senbayashi Station.

March 30, 1932: The reconstruction of Tenmabashi Station was completed and started functioning.

June 14, 1932: Doi Station opened.

October 4, 1932: Owada Station opened.

October 15, 1932; The cars used on the entire Keihan Line were equipped with pantographs.

October 1932: Gamo Station was relocated to the vicinity of Kyobashi Station.

December 29, 1933: The section between Gamo Signal Station and Moriguchi Station became quadruple-tracked. This was the longest quadruple-track section at that time.

March 15, 1934: The section express train was introduced on the section between Tenmabashi and Hirakata-higashiguchi stations.

April 2, 1934: A through-train to the Keishin Line, 'Keihan Electric Railway Type 60,' started operating (which disappeared during the war).

June 1, 1934: Express trains began making stops at Gamo Station.

September 21, 1934: Typhoon Muroto hit the Kansai district, and the inspection shed of Moriguchi Depot was seriously damaged.

June 29, 1935: The line was seriously damaged by the great flood of the Kamo-gawa River, which washed away the roadbed and destroyed the platforms between the Sanjo and Shichijo stations (following this experience, the Kamogawa Extension Project was formulated to take the Keihan Main Line underground).

April 1, 1936: The sub-express train started operating. At that time, this type of train made a stop at Moriguchi, Hirakata, Hashimoto and Yodo stations in addition to those stations where the express train made stops.

January 11, 1938: The section express train started its operation during the evening rush (the stations where the train stopped are not the same as the present stops).

April 1, 1938: Kori Station's name was changed to Korien Station.

April 1, 1938: The trains made up of three cars started operating (during the morning and evening rush hours).

December 25, 1939: Yawata Station's name was changed to Iwashimizu-hachimangu-mae Station, and Inari Station's name was changed to Inarijinja-mae Station.

September 1, 1941: Shidan-mae Station's name was changed to Fujimori Station.

April 1, 1942: Shin-morishoji Station's name was changed to Morishoji Station and Morishoji-Sembayashi Station became Senbayashi Station.

January 20, 1943: Undojo-mae Station's name was changed to Toyono Station.

October 1, 1943: Due to the company merger, the line became one of the Keihanshin Express Railway (Hankyu-dentetsu) lines.

February 5, 1944: Express trains began going nonstop at Gojo Station.

June 7, 1945: Attacked from the air, Tenmabashi Station, the Tenmabashi Transportation Office and the Tenmabashi Railway Maintenance Office were burned down.

June 26, 1945: The railway near Takii Station was damaged by an air raid.

August 14, 1945: Nodabashi Station burned down during an air raid.

September 15, 1945: Doi Station, Tobakaido Station and Gojo Station suspended their operations.

December 21, 1945: The trains on the Nara Electric Railway (currently the Kintetsu Kyoto Line) started sharing the track from Tanbabashi Station to Sanjo Station.

February 15, 1946: The operation of express trains, which had been suspended at the last stage of the war, was restarted. The train was operated between Sanjo Station and Tenmabashi Station with an interval of 20 minutes and a required time of 82 minutes.

May 3, 1946: Gojo Station reopened.

May 11, 1946: Tobakaido Station reopened.

July, 1946: The reconstruction due to war damage was completed.

April 1, 1947: The Keihan Line also started the through operation to Kyoto Station of Nara Electric Railway from Tanbabashi Station. The one-car train between Uji Station and Kyoto Station of the Nara Electric Railway (Naraden) started operating every 30 minutes. The express train shortened its required time to 79 minutes between Sanjo Station and Tenmabashi Station, and enhanced its service with 15-minute operation.

April 12, 1947: Doi Station reopened.

January 1, 1948: Iwashimizu-hachimangu-mae Station changed its name to Yawatacho Station, and Inarijinja-mae Station's name was changed to Fushimi-inari Station.

October 1, 1949: Gamo Station's name was changed to Kyobashi Station, Hirakata Station became Hirakata-koen Station and Hirakata-higashiguchi Station became Hirakatashi Station.

December 1, 1949: Following the division of the company, the line becomes the Keihan Main Line of Keihan Electric Railway.

July 1, 1950: The timetable was revised. The express train between Sanjo Station and Tenmabashi Station restarted and ran in 59 minutes, recovering the time required before the war.

September 1, 1950: The limited express started running between Tenmabashi Station and Sanjo Station in 53 minutes, with two outbound trains in the morning and two inbound trains in the evening (but no operation on Sundays and holidays). The train made stops at Kyobashi Station, Shichijo Station and Shijo Station. These stops haven't changed for about 50 years.

April 2, 1951: The limited express started all-day service.

April 26, 1951: Trains made up of four cars started their service.

August 20, 1951: Neyagawa Station changed its name to Neyagawashi Station.

May 1, 1952: A passing track was constructed at Owada Station and, following the completion of railway reform and the introduction of new type cars, the timetable was revised. The limited express shortened its required time to 48 minutes. At the same time the service was enhanced and limited express trains started operating every 30 minutes during the daytime.

June 23, 1952: The A-express started operating as a type of train that extended the service of express trains between Tenmabashi Station to Hirakatashi Station as far as to Yawatacho Station, by making a stop at each station from Hirakatashi Station to Yawatacho Station.

July 17, 1952: A 'pigeon mark' was placed on the limited express trains.

May 10, 1953: The limited express started to provide the service with a 20-minute interval all day.

September 25, 1953: The season's thirteenth typhoon hit the Kansai District, and the operation of the section between Chushojima Station and Yawata Station was suspended because the bank of the Uji-gawa River had broken and the bank revetment was washed out (it temporarily reopened on October 1).

April 12, 1954: The train with a special car exclusively for the students of Seibo Jogakuin (Seibo Girls' Junior and Senior High School) was introduced at Korien Station.

November 30, 1954: In the section of 0.762 km between Tenmabashi Station and Nodabashi Station, the shared track was relocated to a newly constructed exclusive track. The Keihan Main Line, in its entirety, began using an exclusive track for the line.

January 1, 1955: Nodabashi Station changed its name to Katamachi Station

June 25, 1955: The freight operation between Tenmabashi Station and Shiokoji Station was discontinued, and Shiokoji (freight) Station was closed.

March 21, 1956: The required time of a limited express train was reduced to 42 minutes. The local through-train operating between Tenmabashi Station and Sanjo Station began going nonstop between Kyobashi Station and Moriguchi Station.

March 21, 1956: The trains made up of five cars began operating (limited express trains).

March 6, 1957: The train equipped with the track air-cushion vehicles started operating for the first time in Japan (vehicle No. 1759).

November 17, 1958: The trains made up of six cars started operating (with the express train operating between Tenmabashi Station and Hirakatashi Station).

December 1, 1958: Neyagawa Signal Station opened between Kayashima Station and Neyagawashi Station. Following the opening of Kayashima Depot (current Neyagawa Depot), the spur line to the depot was bifurcated.

March 28, 1960: The timetable was revised. The current type of section express started operating. During the daytime, the Super-Car Keihan Electric Railway Series 2000 was operated in an exclusive manner (between Tenmabashi Station and Hirakatashi Station, with a 20-minute interval during the daytime).

November 28, 1960: The groundbreaking ceremony for constructing underground tracks between Yodoyabashi Station and Tenmabashi Station was held, and the construction began.

December 1, 1961: Express trains started making stops at Hirakata-koen during the daytime.

December 22, 1962: Automatic ticket vending machines were installed at Kyobashi Station and Tenmabashi Station for the first time on the Keihan lines.

April 16, 1963: The line extended the service in the underground section between Yodoyabashi Station and Tenmabashi Station. The limited express started making the run between Yodoyabashi Station and Sanjo Station in 45 minutes.

May 15, 1963: Neyagawashi Station was relocated to the current site. Korien Station's elevated station building on the bridge and its passing track were completed. Toyono Station between Neyagawashi Station and Korien Station was closed.

June 1, 1964: Kayashima Depot changed its name to Neyagawa Depot.

August 3, 1966: An accident occurred, in which an express train bound for Yodoyabashi Station clashed against a local train bound for Yodoyabashi Station (from: Keihan Electric Railway - Gamo Signal Station train collision accident in Nihon-no-Tetsudojiko (Railway Accidents in Japan) (1950-1999)). Fifty-one people were injured. The cause of the accident was the error of the train conductor, who had overlooked the red signal. As a result of this accident, the ATS (Automatic Train Stop) system was introduced.

August 1, 1967: The installation of the ground equipment of ATS was completed between Yodoyabashi Station and Owada Station (except for local train lines in the quadruple-track sections), and limited express trains began using ATS. The line installed ATS for the first time among the private railway companies in the Kansai District.

September 28, 1967: The installation of the ground equipment of ATS was completed in the section between Owada Station and Sanjo Station as well as on the local train lines of the quadruple-track sections.

December 11, 1967: During the morning and evening rush hours, the operation of seven-car trains started.

September 12, 1968: All trains of the whole Keihan Main Line were fully equipped with ATS.

February 21, 1968: The groundbreaking ceremony to construct an elevated quadruple-track line between Tenmabashi Station and Noe Station was celebrated.

December 18, 1968: A level intersection with Osaka City Trams within Katamachi Station was removed, owing to the discontinued operation of Osaka City Trams.

December 20, 1968: Mutual operation with the Kintetsu Kyoto Line at Tanbabashi Station was discontinued. The reasons were as follows: the increased number of trains in the Kintetsu Railway as well as the Keihan Electric Railway, the increased voltage to 1500V on the Kintetsu Kyoto Line (in 1969), and the difference facilitated by the ATS systems.

November 26, 1969: The track laid on the south side of Makino Station was elevated and relocated.

November 30, 1969: The route between Tenmabashi Station and Noe Station was changed. Kyobashi Station was relocated and elevated. Katamachi Station between Tenmabashi Station and Kyobashi Station was closed (it was a stop for trains of categories lower than Section Express). The A-express was integrated with the sub-express, and the A-express category was abolished.

October 1, 1970: Gamo Signal Station was closed.

November 1, 1970: The section between Tenmabashi Station and (former) Gamo Signal Station (3.4 km) became quadruple-tracked. The express train started making stops at Neyagawashi Station during the daytime.

June 20, 1971: Moriguchi Station changed its name to Moriguchishi Station. Shin-Kadoma Station opened, and express trains started making stops at the station. The railway that had been laid in the vicinity of Kuzuha Station was relocated, and the new Kuzuha Station equipped with a passing track and a storage track entered service. Express trains started making stops at Kuzuha Station, where automatic ticket checkers were installed for the first time on the Keihan lines.

August 15, 1971: A thorough revision of the timetable was made. The interval of the operation during the daytime was changed from 20 minutes to 15 minutes (the daytime time schedule with a 15-minute interval had been maintained for 32 years, until 2003). The limited express operated during the daytime shortened its operation interval from 20 minutes to 15 minutes thanks to the opening of Shin-Kadoma Station (equipped with a passing track) and the completion of the rehabilitation work in the vicinity of Kuzuha Station (new passing-track construction).

February 2, 1972: The equipment of the Moriguchi workshop was transferred to the premises of Neyagawa Depot and was set up as the Neyagawa workshop. The Moriguchi workshop was closed.

November 28, 1972: The groundbreaking ceremony to elevate the railway and provide a quadruple track in the section between Doi Station and Neyagawa Signal Station (5.8 km) was held.

March 23, 1975: Shin-Kadoma Station's name was changed to Kadomashi Station. Kadoma Station, located between Moriguchishi Station and Kadomashi Station, ceased to be used, and Nishisanso Station opened. The section express started making stops at Nishisanso Station (owing to the disuse of Kadoma Station).

September 12, 1976: The section between Moriguchishi Station and Kadomashi Station (1.8 km) was elevated and quadruple-tracked.

November 20, 1976: Textured paving blocks were installed for the first time in Keihan Electric Railway (at Korien Station).

November 1, 1977: Yawatacho Station changed its name to Yawatashi Station.

March 10, 1978: The denomination of the section between Yodoyabashi Station and Tofukuji Station was changed from a tramway, as defined by the Tramways Act, to railway based on the local Railways Act.

July 30, 1978: The section between Kadomashi Station and Neyagawa Signal Station was quadruple-tracked and elevated.

March 20, 1979: The groundbreaking ceremony to underground the section between Tofukuji Station and Sanjo Station (2.8 km) was held.

February 3, 1980: The line for Kyoto was two-tracked in the section between Kadomashi Station and Neyagawa Signal Station.

February 20, 1980: The first three cars of an express train (5554F) bound for Sanjo Station derailed, and the first car overturned and crashed in to a private house alongside the rail line. A hundred and four people were injured. A stone placed on the railway by five junior-high-school students caused the accident. Subsequently, a fence was built along the line (from: Keihan Electric Railway - Derailment accident caused by a stone placed on the railroad in Nihon-no-Tetsudojiko (Railway Accidents in Japan) (1950-1999)).

March 10, 1980: The first phase of the Yodo Depot construction work was finished, and the facility started being used (storing 62 cars). The inspection of trains started on March 17.

March 16, 1980: The section between Kadomashi Station and Neyagawa Signal Station became quadruple-tracked. This section again became the longest quadruple-tracked section among all private railways in Japan (12 km, until 1997).

March 17, 1980: Fukakusa Depot ceased operation. After that, its tracks were maintained as storage tracks for a while, but eventually all the tracks (except one on the east side) were removed.

March 23, 1980: Following the change to quadrupled track, the timetable was revised. Sub-express trains began making stops at Kayashima Station throughout the day. Express and sub-express trains began making stops at Moriguchishi Station during the daytime. Neyagawashi Station was officially upgraded to a station at which express trains could stop.

February 8, 1981: The installation of yellow-colored textured paving blocks in all stations of the Keihan Lines was completed.

March 29, 1982: The section around Moriguchishi Station was elevated. With this, the replacement of grade crossings with overpasses along the section between Yodoyabashi Station and Neyagawa Signal Station (14.1 km) was completed (the work was completed in August).

November 3, 1983: The second phase of Yodo Depot construction was finished (the number of cars stored increased to 138).

December 4, 1983: The voltage of overhead wire was increased from 600V to 1500V. The maximum speed was increased from 105 km/h to 110 km/h.

April 22, 1985: The timetable was revised, and express trains made up of eight cars started operating between Yodoyabashi Station and Kuzuha Station during the morning and evening rush hours.

May 1985: The reinforcement work of Kizu-gawa Bridge was completed.

May 24, 1987: The section between Shichijo(※)and Sanjo Station was taken underground.

June 1, 1987: The timetable was revised, and express trains made up of eight cars extended their operations to the entire line.

July 15, 1987: Due to the torrential rain that had fallen before dawn, flooding occurred along the underground section in the Kyoto area, and the water that poured into Gojo Station located in the deepest part of the underground section submerged it up to the platform level. The operation of the section between Shichijo Station and Sanjo Station was suspended for the entire day, but on the next day the operation was recovered in time for the starting train.

December 10, 1987: The Autonomous Decentralized Traffic Control System (ADEC) went into full operation.

September 1, 1988: All seven stations on the underground-line section (Sanjo, Shijo, Gojo, Shichijo, Tenmabashi, Kitahama and Yodoyabashi) adopted the 'all-day ban on smoking.'

April 1, 1989: As part of the support for the public-relations effort of 'The International Garden and Greenery Exposition, Osaka, Japan, 1990,' the operation of special trains--'Hana-go (flower train),' 'Midori-go (greenery train)' and 'Mizu-go (water train)'--started (and ran till September of the next year).

September 27, 1989: The timetable was revised, and express trains began stopping again at Gojo Station for the first time in 45 years.

The timetable revision was carried out, anticipating the inauguration of the Oto Line, and therefore the operation of the trains that terminated at Demachiyanagi Station were positioned as a test operation until the morning of October 5, when the line was inaugurated.

October 1, 1989: The 'K-card,' a prepaid-type card, was introduced and started being used.

October 5, 1989: The line started the through operation to the Oto Line.

March 24, 1990: The section around Hirakatashi Station was elevated (the full-scale elevation including the Katano Line was completed on March 25, 1993).

January 27, 1993: At six stations located in between Noe Station and Doi Station, the platform extension work to cope with the eight-car trains was finished.

January 30, 1993: The timetable was revised. Six limited express trains bound for Yodoyabashi began making stops at Chushojima Station during the weekday morning rush.

May 1, 1994: The all-day ban on smoking was introduced at all stations.

January 17, 1995: The Great Hanshin Awaji Earthquake occurred, and as a result the entire operation was temporarily suspended (limited express trains suspended their operations for the entire day).

October 21, 1995: The automatic ticket gate was introduced at all stations on the Keihan lines (including the Oto, Uji and Katano lines).

September 1996: The antiseismic reinforcement of 16 piers supporting Kyobashi Elevated Bridge I and II was completed.

November 16, 1996: In the vicinity of Yodo Depot (located between Yawatashi Station and Yodo Station) the tracks were elevated (but the depot building remained on the ground).

March 22, 1997: The timetable was revised. Six limited express trains for Yodoyabashi Station operated during morning rush hours on weekdays started making stops at Hirakatashi Station in addition to Chushojima Station.

April 25, 1997: The underground track running in Kyoto City was chosen as one of the 'Fukushi no Machizukuri 100-sen' (the top 100 welfare-friendly communities) of Kyoto Prefecture.

November 28, 1997: The third phase of Yodo Depot construction was completed (extension to the south side of the Keihan Main Line).

December 19, 1997: Access ramps for wheelchair users were provided at all stations on the Keihan lines.

April 1, 1999: The interoperable cards with 'Surutto KANSAI (KANSAI THRU PASS)' became accepted on the Keihan lines.

November 20, 1999: The tracks around Neyagawashi Station were elevated, and the section between Yodoyabashi Station and Neyagawashi Station (15.3 km) was fully equipped with overhead crossings up to Tai Crossing.

July 1, 2000: The timetable was revised. The through-trains between Uji Station on the Uji Line (Keihan) and Sanjo Station on the Keihan Main Line were discontinued except for two trains for Sanjo Station that operated during the weekday mornings. Limited express trains began making stops at Tanbabashi Station and Chushojima Station throughout the day.

March 31, 2002: The elevation work carried out in the section from Neyagawa Signal Station to the Kyoto side of Neyagawashi Station was completed.

December 2, 2002: Eight limited express trains, starting from Demachiyanagi Station and heading for Yodoyabashi Station, which operated during the morning rush hours, introduced women-only cars.

September 6, 2003: A thorough revision of the timetable was made. The operation interval during the daytime was shortened from 15 minutes to 10 minutes, and in the Osaka area the operation system during the daytime was formed with six limited express trains, 12 sub-express trains and six local trains. The operation of the through-trains between Uji Station on the Uji Line and Sanjo Station on the Keihan Main Line were completely discontinued. The K-Ltd. Express 'Orihime' (only outbound operation in the morning) and the sub-express 'Hikoboshi' (only inbound operation in the evening), both of which were directly operated to the Katano Line, began operating.

August 1, 2004: PiTaPa was introduced.

April 16, 2006: Following the construction of the Nakanoshima Line, the tracks at Tenmabashi Station were rerouted. Yodo Station was partially relocated. The trains that arrived at and departed from Tenmabashi Station during the daytime were revived.

June 17: 2007: The train operation control systems of the Keihan lines were updated.

October 19, 2008: With the inauguration of the Nakanoshima Line, the timetable was revised. The Keihan Main Line started the direct operation with the Nakanoshima Line. At the same time, because the same names existed on the Kyoto Municipal Subway Karasuma Line, Gojo Station and Shijo Station were changed to Kiyomizu-gojo Station and Gion-shijo Station, respectively.

*The starting points of the underground sections are situated between Tofukuji and Shichijo, and in the vicinity of Ichinohashinomoto-cho, Higashiyama Ward, Kyoto City.