Normal School (師範学校)

A SHIHAN GAKKO (normal school) is an middle and advanced educational institution for training teachers for elementary/middle schools (shihan education) under the prewar educational system reform.

Summary

Based on the educational school system published in 1872, a normal school was established by the government in Yushima Seido Temple, succeeding part of Shoheizaka-Gakumonjo closed in 1871, and then they were established in each school system district such as Osaka, Sendai, Nagoya, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and Niigata.

By 1878 all government-established normal schools excluding Tokyo Normal School and Tokyo Women's Normal School were transferred to their prefectures. Besides these schools, there were many other normal schools, established independently by each prefecture, for training elementary school teachers, but there was no uniformity in the period of education and entrance age.

In 1881 guidelines of rules for teaching for normal schools were set up under Education Order, which led to the first unification of the level of normal schools.

With the enactment of Normal School Order in 1886, the normal schools were divided into higher normal schools and ordinary normal schools.

In 1897 with the enactment of Normal School Order, the ordinary normal school was renamed to normal school.

In 1907 with the start of a six-year elementary school system, normal school regulations were set up and the second normal schools for middle-school graduates were institutionalized.

In 1943 due to the revision of Normal School Order all the normal schools were transferred to the government and also promoted to educational institutions equal to old-system vocational schools, and youth normal schools were set up afresh (the Order was revised the next year).
(As for normal schools in Taiwan, among Japanese old oversea territories, refer to the normal school institutions in Taiwan during the Japanese colonial period.)

On condition of becoming teachers after graduation, normal school students are exempted from paying tuition and also ensured their livelihood, they played a role of helping excellent children from poor families. If a student could manage to take the course as follows: normal school => higher normal school => university of literature and science, the student could complete a course which was equivalent to a regular route: middle school => high school => imperial university, with no school expenses, thus normal schools attracted many students who were excellent but suffering financial burdens.

People who received benefit from this system were as follows; Yoshifuru AKIYAMA, a military serviceman in the Meiji and the Taisho periods, Chung-hee PARK, a military serviceman and President of the Republic of Korea in the Showa period, (both of them entered Army War College (Japan) after a teaching career), Keita GOTO, a businessman (the first leader of the Tokyu Group; he graduated from Ueda Senior High School in Nagano Prefecture, worked as an elementary school assistant teacher, entered Tokyo Higher Normal School, working as an English teacher, and went on to The University of Tokyo), etc. (Kan KIKUCHI, a writer, was forced to enter Tokyo Higher Normal School for an economic reason, but expelled because of his bad behavior and reentered Daiichi Senior High School with financial support from a rich person).

However, after the war, for the democratization of Japan, the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers of General Headquarters (GHQ/SCAP) dismantled the normal school system, which had been a hotbed of the militaristic education, and gave an instruction that teacher training should be done at universities on the U.S. model. People began to criticize normal schools; the dormitory life of the normal school was quite the same as that of a naimu-han (internal affairs corps) of the Imperial Japanese Army with seniors always teasing and hazing juniors to teach them absolute obedience to their seniors, and the education content also had a lot of problems such as teaching what was described in "Kojiki" (The Records of Ancient Matters) as an authentic history, and the graduates, as supporters of the militarist education, kept sending their students to the front.

Such education resulted in producing a lot of so-called 'normal school type teachers' who were rigid, narrow-minded, and stereotyped, emphasizing formalism, authoritarianism, blind obedience, etc., which had already been a problem in prewar days, too.

Therefore, normal schools in various regions, on the model of American universities such as "liberal arts colleges", made a fresh start as Department of Education or Department of Liberal Arts of new-system universities that embodied various old-system schools. However, in the screening accompanied by the transition from an old-system normal school to a university, a lot of teachers failed in the screening and lost their jobs because the screening naturally focused on teachers' achievements as scholars/researchers, but those who failed knew nothing more than practical knowledge such as how to use blackboards or managing their classes. Therefore, at this time, many schools replaced teachers extensively, and the campuses of normal/youth and normal schools in a prefecture are integrated in series, as a result school traditions changed greatly.

On the model of "liberal arts colleges" the curriculum at first put emphasis on liberal arts education with some universities providing a course to a medical school, however, following the upgrading of elementary/middle schools after World War II, most of the graduates chose a teaching job, and when the revised National School Establishment Law came into force in 1966, most of departments of arts and sciences sequentially abolished courses not related to school teaching and began to change their names to "Department of Education".

The current system allows students in every department to get a teacher's license. As a result, however, some people pointed out that this system produced incompetent teachers who had not majored in pedagogy, and some proposed that the normal school system be revived. However, professional education at graduate schools is a global trend and even in Japan with the introduction of a professional graduate school system for highly professional education including legal profession, it was decided that the acquisition of advanced skills needed by future teachers should be done at a graduate level. Therefore, Teaching Profession Graduate School System as one of professional graduate schools was introduced and established on April 1, 2008.

Higher Normal Schools/Women's Higher Normal Schools

The higher normal school was a school that trained middle school teachers.
The schools were as follows;

Higher Normal School (1886-), from 1902 Tokyo Higher Normal School.

Women's Higher Normal School (1900-), from 1908 Tokyo Women's Higher Normal School

Hiroshima Higher Normal School (1902-)

Nara Women's Higher Normal School (1908-)

Normal School Order in 1897 decided that higher normal schools train teachers for normal, ordinary middle and women's higher schools, and women's higher normal schools train teachers for women's/women's higher schools.

Higher normal schools accepted middle school graduates, and Women's higher normal schools accepted women's higher school graduates.

As a principle bachelor's titles were given only to university graduates, however graduates from Tokyo Higher Normal School Advanced Course and Hiroshima Higher Normal School Advanced Course of moral education were allowed to receive bachelor's titles as exceptional cases (Matters about Titles of Graduates from Higher Normal Schools [Imperial Decree No.36 in 1930]).

Ordinary normal schools (normal schools)

The ordinary normal school is a school that trains elementary school teachers. In each prefecture one normal school with the men' section and the women's section was set up.

In accordance with Normal School Order in 1897, ordinary normal schools were renamed normal schools, and one or more normal schools were established in each prefecture. The women's section was separated as a women's normal school by the latter half of the 1920s.

The first regular course (a five-year system from 1925) which required graduation from an higher elementary school (elementary school higher course) for entrance, the second regular course which required graduation from a middle school or a women's higher school (institutionalized in 1907, a two-year system from 1931) were set up.

Higher Normal Schools/Women's Higher Normal Schools

Normal School Order in 1943 decided that higher normal schools should train teachers for middle schools and girls' high school, while higher women's normal schools train teachers for girls' high school. By the Enactment of School Education Law in 1947 and National School Establishment Law in 1949, Tokyo Higher Normal School and University of Arts and Sciences amalgamated into Tokyo University of Education, Hiroshima Higher Normal School was amalgamated with various institutions including Hiroshima Women's Higher Normal School, Hiroshima University of Arts and Science (old-system), Hiroshima High School (old-system), Hiroshima Technical College (old-system) and promoted to Hiroshima University, further both Tokyo and Nara Women's Higher Normal Schools were promoted to universities, Ochanomizu University and Nara Women's University, respectively and Kanazawa Higher Normal School became Kanazawa University of Education. Moreover, because of war damage, Okazaki Higher Normal School moved from Okazaki City to Toyokawa City, however, without returning to Okazaki City, it became a Toyokawa branch of the Faculty of Liberal Arts (now the Faculty of Information and Culture) of Nagoya University. (The Department of Education of Nagoya University was newly established at the start of postwar new-system universities, not descended from any normal school).

Tokyo Higher Normal School (1886-): After the promotion to Tokyo University of Arts and Sciences (1929), it was established as an annex to this university.

Tokyo Women's Higher Normal School

Hiroshima Higher Normal School (1902-): After the promotion to Hiroshima University of Arts and Sciences (old-system) (1929-), it was established as an annex to this university.

Nara Women's Higher Normal School (1908-)

Kanazawa Higher Normal School (1944-)

Okazaki Higher Normal School (1945-)

Hiroshima Women's Higher Normal School (1945-)

Normal Schools

From 1943 normal schools became government-established, educational institutions to train teachers for national elementary schools at about a level of vocational schools. Normal schools had a regular course and a preparatory course; the former accepted graduates from middle schools or women's higher school, and the latter accepted graduates from elementary school higher courses, middle schools or those who finished two years in women's higher schools.

Normal schools across the country were as follows;
(a university under the new system of education)

Hokkaido Daiichi Higher Normal School (the Sapporo Branch School of Hokkaido University of Education)

Hokkaido Daini Higher Normal School (the Hakodate Branch School of Hokkaido University of Education)

Hokkaido Daisan Normal School (the Asahikawa Branch School of Hokkaido University of Education)

Aomori Normal School (the faculty of Education, Hirosaki University)

Iwate Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Iwate University)

Miyagi Normal School (the faculty of education of Tohoku University => Miyagi University of Education)

Akita Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Akita University)

Yamagata Normal School (the faculty of education of Yamagata University)

Fukushima Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Fukushima University)

Ibaraki Normal School (College of Education, Ibaraki University)

Tochigi Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Utsunomiya University)

Gunma Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Gunma University)

Saitama Normal School (the faculty of education of Saitama University)

Chiba Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Chiba University)

Tokyo Daiichi Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Tokyo Gakugei University)

Tokyo Daini Normal School (ditto)

Tokyo Daisan Normal School (ditto)

Kanagawa Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Yokohama National University)

Niigata Daiichi Normal School (the faculty of education of Niigata University)

Niigata Daini Normal School (the Takada Branch School of the faculty of education of Niigata University => Jyoetsu University of Education)

Toyama Normal School (the faculty of education of Toyama University)

Ishikawa Normal School (the faculty of education of Kanazawa University)

Fukui Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Fukui University)

Yamanashi Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Yamanashi University)

Nagano Normal School (the faculty of education of Shinshu University)

Shizuoka Daiichi Normal School (the faculty of education of Shizuoka University)

Shizuoka Daini Normal School (ditto)

Aichi Daiichi Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Aichi University of Education)

Aichi Daini Normal School (ditto)

Gifu Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Gifu University)

Mie Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Mie University)

Shiga Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Shiga University)

Kyoto Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Kyoto University of Education)

Osaka Daiichi Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Osaka University of Education)

Osaka Daini Normal School (ditto)

Hyogo Normal School (the faculty of education of Kobe University)

Nara Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Nara University of Education)

Wakayama Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Wakayama University)

Tottori Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Tottori University)

Shimane Normal School (the faculty of education of Shimane University)

Okayama Normal School (the faculty of education of Okayama University)

Hiroshima Normal School (the faculty of education of Hiroshima University)

Yamaguchi Normal School (the faculty of education of Yamaguchi University)

Tokushima Normal School (the faculty of education of Tokushima University => Naruto University of Education)

Kagawa Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Kagawa University)

Ehime Normal School (the faculty of education of Ehime University)

Kochi Normal School (the faculty of education of Kochi University)

Fukuoka Daiichi Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Fukuoka University of Education)

Fukuoka Daini Normal School (ditto)

Saga Normal School (the faculty of education of Saga University)

Nagasaki Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Nagasaki University)

Kumamoto Normal School (the faculty of education of Kumamoto University)

Oita Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Oita University)

Miyazaki Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Miyazaki University)

Kagoshima Normal School (the faculty of education of Kagoshima University)

Okinawa Normal School

Karafuto

Karafuto-cho Karafuto Normal School

Korea

Keijyo (Gyeong-seong) Normal School (Seoul National University Normal College)

Daikyu (Teg) Normal School (keihoku (Kyungpook) National University Normal College)

Heijyo (Pyongyang) Normal School

Zenshu (Chonju) Normal School (Zenshu National University of Education)

Kanko (Hunfun) Normal School

Koshu (Gwanju) Normal School (Koshu National University of Education)

Shunsen (Chuncheon) Normal School (Chuncheon National University of Education)

Shinshu (Chinju) Normal School (Chinju National University of Education)

Seishu (Cheongju) Normal School (Cheongju National University of Education)

Shingishu (Sinuiju) Normal School

Seishin (Chongjin) Normal School

Kaishu (Haeju) Normal School

Ota (Taejon) Normal School

Keijyo (Gyeong-seong) Women's Normal School (Seoul National University Normal College)

Koshu (Gongju) Normal School (Gongju National University of Education)

Genzan (Wonsan) Women's Normal School

Kanto-shu

Ryojun (Lüshunkou) Normal School (women's section was called Ryojun women's Normal School)

Taiwan

Taipei Normal School (the regular course (old Taipei Second Normal School) => National Taipei University of Education, and the preparatory course, and the women's section (old Taipei First Normal School)=> Taipei Municipal University of Education)

Taichung Normal School (the regular course =>National Taichung University of Education, and the preparatory course (old Hsinchu Normal School) => National Hsinchu University of Education)

Tainan Normal School (the regular course => National Tainan University, the preparatory course (old Heito (Pingtung) Normal School) => National Heito University of Education)

Youth Normal School

Under the revised Normal School Order in 1944, prefectural youth teacher training schools that were training teachers for youth schools became youth normal schools, government-established educational institutions at the level of vocational schools. These schools accepted those who finished the preparatory course and graduates from middle schools or women's higher schools and had the boys' section and girl's section.
Youth Normal Schools across the country were as follows;
(university under the new system of education)
Karafuto Youth Normal School

Aomori Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Hirosaki University)

Iwate Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Iwate University)

Akita Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Akita University)

Yamagata Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Yamagata University)

Fukushima Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Fukushima University)

Ibaraki Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Ibaraki University)

Gunma Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Gunma University)

Saitama Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Saitama University)

Chiba Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Chiba University)

Niigata Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Niigata University)

Toyama Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Toyama University)

Ishikawa Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Kanazawa University)

Fukui Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Fukui University)

Yamanashi Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Yamanashi University)

Nagano Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Shinshu University)

Yamanashi Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Yamanashi University)

Shizuoka Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Shizuoka University)

Miyagi Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Tohoku University => Miyagi University of Education)

Mie Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Mie University)

Shiga Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Shiga University)

Hyogo Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Kobe University)

Tottori Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Tottori University)

Shimane Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Shimane University)

Okayama Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Okayama University)

Hiroshima Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Hiroshima University)

Yamaguchi Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Yamaguchi University)

Tokushima Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Tokushima University)

Kagawa Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Kagawa University)

Ehime Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Ehime University)

Kochi Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Kochi University)

Saga Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Saga University)

Nagasaki Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Nagasaki University)

Kumamoto Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Kumamoto University)

Oita Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Oita University)

Miyazaki Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Miyazaki University)

Okinawa Youth Normal School

Shoka Young Normal School (in Changhua, Taiwan, abolished)
Tokyo Youth Normal School (Department of liberal Arts of Tokyo Gakugei University)

Aichi Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Aichi University of Education)

Kyoto Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Kyoto University of Education)

Osaka Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Osaka Prefectural University)

Nara Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Nara University of Education)

Fukuoka Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Fukuoka University of Education)

Hokkaido Youth Normal School (the Iwamizawa Branch School of Hokkaido University of Education)

Kanagawa Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Yokohama National University)

Tochigi Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Utsunomiya University)

Wakayama Youth Normal School (the faculty of liberal arts of Wakayama University)

Kagoshima Youth Normal School (the faculty of education of Kagoshima University)

Government-established teacher training schools other than normal schools

Those who completed specified subjects about education in imperial universities, old national vocational school advanced courses and other schools, were given a teacher's license for old-system middle schools and women's higher schools.

Teacher training in temporary teacher training schools, normal schools, middle schools and women's higher schools

Teacher training in industrial schools and teacher training institute of industrial schools

Teacher Training Institute of Industrial Vocational School in prefectures and cities

Temporary teacher training schools

Apart from higher normal schools, temporary teacher training schools were set up in imperial universities and various directly controlled schools to solve the shortage of teachers for normal schools, middle schools and higher women's schools. Particularly from the end of the Taisho period to the early Showa period the quota of these temporary teacher training schools was more than half of the quota of higher normal schools (in 1926 the number of students in temporary teacher training schools was 1532, while 2719 in higher normal schools), playing a great role of supplying a lot of middle school teachers, etc..
Establishing state-run temporary teacher training schools (the Imperial Decree No.100, on March 28, 1902)

The first period (the enactment of temporary teacher training school regulations in 1902 ~)

The first temporary teacher training school, Tokyo University

The second temporary teacher training school, Daiichi Senior High School (old system)

The third temporary teacher training school, Daini Senior High School (old system)

The fourth temporary teacher training school, Daisan Senior High School (old system)

The fifth temporary teacher training school, Tokyo School of Foreign language

The sixth temporary teacher training school, Tokyo Women's Higher Normal School

The second period (about the time of the revised enactment of temporary teacher training school regulations in 1922)

First temporary teacher training schools; Tokyo Higher Normal School,Tokyo University of Arts and Sciences (1922- 1944)

Second temporary teacher training school, Hiroshima Higher Normal School, (1922- 1937)

Third temporary teacher training school, Nara Women's Higher Normal School, (1922-1931)

Fourth temporary teacher training school, Tokyo Music School (1922-1931)

Fifth temporary teacher training school, Osaka School of Foreign Language (1922-1927)

Sixth temporary teacher training dchool, Tokyo Women's Higher Normal School, (- 1938)

Seventh Temporary Teacher Training School, Kyoto Imperial University (1923-1930)

Eighth Temporary Teacher Training School, Kyushu Imperial University (1913-1932)

Ninth temporary teacher raining school, Tohoku Imperial University (1923-1932)

Tenth temporary teacher training school, Daiyon Senior High School (old-system) (1923-1931)

Eleventh temporary teacher training school, Hamamatsu Higher School of Technology (1924-1930)

Twelfth temporary teacher training school, Tokyo School of Foreign Language (1926-1930)

Thirteenth temporary teacher training school, Daigo Senior High School (old-system) (1913-1931)

Fourteenth temporary teacher training school, Otaru Higher Commercial School (1924-1930)

Fifteenth temporary teacher training school, Saga Senior High School (old-system) (1929-1930)

Sixteenth temporary teacher training school, Hokkaido Imperial University (1929)

The third period (under the war regime)

Tokyo temporary teacher Training school, Tokyo University of Arts and Sciences (1941-1942)

Hamamatsu temporary teacher training school, Hamamatsu Higher School of Technology (1940-1942)

Hiroshima temporary teacher training school, Hiroshima University of Literature and Science (1941-1948)

Nagoya temporary teacher training school, Nagoya Higher School of Technology (1941-1948)

Osaka temporary teacher training school, Osaka University (1942-1943)

Sapporo temporary teacher training school, Hokkaido Imperial University (1943)

Sendai temporary teacher training school, Tohoku Imperial University (1942-1943)

Fukuoka temporary teacher training school, Kyushu Imperial University (1942-1943)

Schools for training teachers of industrial schools

Schools for training teachers of industrial schools were set up in universities and various state-run schools
Regulations on Training Teachers of Industrial Schools (established in 1899)

Agricultural Teacher Training School => Agricultural Teacher Training School Attached to Agricultural College of Tokyo Imperial University => Agricultural Teacher Training School Attached to Tokyo Imperial University of Agricultural Department => becoming independent as Tokyo Agricultural Teachers College (=> Tokyo University of Education)

Commercial Teacher Training School Attached to Tokyo Higher Commercial School (1899-)=> Commercial Teacher Training School Attached to Tokyo University of Commerce (old system) => abolished on May, 1949.

Technical Teacher Training School Attached to Tokyo Higher Technical School (1899-)=> Higher Technical Teacher Training School attached to Tokyo Institute of Technology.

Technical Teacher Training School Attached to Osaka Higher Technical School (1920-)=> Technical Teacher Training School Attached to Osaka Vocational Technical School

Technical Teacher Training School Attached to Yokohama Higher Technical School (1929-)=> Technical Teacher Training School Attached to Yokohama Vocational Technical School

Technical Teacher Training School Attached to Nagoya Higher Technical School (1929-)=> Technical Teacher Training School Attached to Nagoya Vocational Technical School

Temporary Technical Teacher Training School Attached to Kumamoto Higher Technical School (1939-) => Technical Teacher Training School Attached to Kumamoto Vocational Technical School

Technical Teacher Training School Attached to Hiroshima Higher Technical School (1939-)=> Technical Teacher Training School Attached to Hiroshima Vocational Technical School

Technical Teacher Training School Attached to Sendai Higher Technical School (1943)=> Technical Teacher Training School Attached to Sendai Vocational Technical School

Technical Teacher Training School Attached to Kanazawa Higher Technical School (1943) => Technical Teacher Training School Attached to Kanazawa Vocational Technical School

Training School of Technical Teachers Attached to Muroran Vocational Technical School (old-system)

Training School of Technical Teachers Attached to Taga Vocational Technical School (old-system)

With educational system reform, these schools became a part of Tokyo Institute of Technology, Kumamoto University, Hiroshima University, Muroran Institute of Technology, Ibaraki University, Kanazawa University, and Tohoku University, respectively, and commercial teacher training and industrial teacher training programs were set up.

Normal school sections/courses in private university specialty department

In private university specialty divisions (university specialty divisions (old system) correspond to old-system vocational schools by Vocational School Order) and in private vocational schools, a higher normal school section/higher normal school course for training teachers for normal schools/middle schools and higher women's schools and normal school course for training teachers for elementary schools were set up.

Nihon University Specialty Division Normal School Course (1901) => Nihon University College of Humanities and Sciences

Waseda University Specialty Division Higher Normal School Section(1903) => the faculty of education of Waseda University

Kokugakuin University Specialty Division Higher Normal School Section (1927)

Komazawa University Specialty Division Higher Normal School Course (1929)

Taisho University Specialty Division Higher Normal School Course

Hosei University Specialty Division Higher Normal School Section

Rissho University Specialty Division Higher Normal School Course (1925)

Doshisha University Specialty Division Faculty of English Teaching (1922)

Tohoku Gakuin University Specialty Division Normal School Course (1918) => Higher Normal School Course (1929)

Aoyama Gakuin University Higher Division English Teaching Course

Japan Women's University Normal School Course

Training institutions for drawing, music, physical education and homemaking teachers

Besides normal schools and higher normal schools, government-established old-system vocational schools and private vocational schools provided various courses in training teachers for art, music, physical education and martial arts. Old-system advanced Course of girls' high schools and women's vocational school had contributed greatly in training homemaking teachers.

Government-established schools/courses

Tokyo Art School Normal School Drawing Course

Tokyo Music School Class A Normal School Course

Tokyo Higher Sports School (1941) => Tokyo Vocational Sports School => Tokyo University of Education => Tsukuba University

Private schools

Japanese Physical Education Association Training Institute of Gymnastics => Japanese Physical Education Normal School of Gymnastics => Japan Vocational Sports School => Nippon Sport Science University

Dai Nippon Butoku kai Martial Arts Teacher Training Institution =>Vocational Bujyutsu (Martial Arts) School =>Vocational Budo (Martial Arts) School

Jissen Women's Higher School Advanced Course/Higher Normal School Section => Jissen Women's Vocational School => Jissen Women's University

The Japan College of Music, Higher Normal School Course/Normal School Course

Musashino Music School => Musashino Music School => Musashino Academia Musicae

Women's Vocational Art School Normal School Course

Hirosaki Women's Japanese and Western Sewing Normal School Course (1928), Hirosaki Women's Japanese and Western Sewing Higher Normal School Course (1933) => Tohoku Women's College