School of Foreign Languages (old education system) (外国語学校 (旧制))

School of Foreign Languages (old education system)

School of foreign languages (old education system) is a group of higher education schools that were, among those specialty schools under the old education system that existed until the school system reform was conducted after the end of World War II, dedicated to learning of foreign languages and renamed 'foreign affairs college' (or foreign language college) during World War II (which are therefore different from schools of foreign languages established as vocational schools).

This article also describes the 'schools of foreign languages' in the early Meiji period as a 'prehistory' when they weren't yet instituted as vocational schools under the old education system.

Outline

A large number of schools of foreign languages were established all over the country as national, public and private schools from the end of the Tokugawa period to the period around the Meiji Restoration, but many of them were either abolished or converted to junior high schools (old education system), and only three schools in Tokyo and Osaka remained as national higher education institutes. Of them, two schools except for Tokyo Gaikokugo Gakko (Tokyo School of Foreign Language) were restructured into Higher Middle School (Senior High School [old education system]).

There was only one School of Foreign Languages (Foreign Affairs College) that became a vocational school (old education system) upon enactment of the Acts of Colleges, which was National Tokyo School of Foreign Language in Tokyo, and subsequently one national school in Osaka, one public school in Kokura and one pubic school in Kobe were founded, while private schools were established such as Tenri School of Foreign Languages.

In 1944 during World War II, the majority of schools of foreign languages were renamed 'foreign affairs college.'

Two national schools were inherited by Tokyo University of Foreign Studies and Osaka University of Foreign Studies, while two public schools by the University of Kitakyushu and Kobe City University of Foreign Studies.

Rise and Fall of National School of Foreign Languages

The prosperity of 'yogaku-juku' (literally school of foreign languages) established at various parts of Japan from the end of the Tokugawa period to years around the Meiji Restoration culminated by the establishment of the Tokyo School of Foreign Language (under old education system) in 1873 and seven national schools of foreign languages in Aichi, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Niigata, Miyagi and Osaka (two in Nagasaki). Since English was particularly popular among foreign languages in those days, the English Department of the Tokyo School of Foreign Languages became independent as Daiichi High School (old education system), and other national schools of foreign languages were also renamed English Language School.

But because of the financial difficulty following the Seinan War, English Language Schools in Aichi, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Niigata and Miyagi were closed in 1877 (and were later transferred to their respective prefectures and reformed as junior high schools [old education system]), and those in Tokyo and Osaka were reformed to be Preparatory School of the University of Tokyo and Osaka Technical College, respectively, which became the predecessor of Daiichi High School (old education system) and Daisan High School (old education system), respectively. Partly affected by the decline of "bunmei kaika" (civilization and enlightenment), other private foreign language schools started to rapidly decline in those days. The remaining Tokyo School of Foreign Languages was merged by Tokyo Shogyo Gakko (Tokyo Commercial College) (predecessor of Hitotsubashi University) in 1885, marking a temporary disappearance of national schools of foreign languages.

Restoration as Vocational Schools (old education system)

A school of foreign languages was established as an affiliated institute of Tokyo Higher Commercial School, the successor of Tokyo Commercial College, in 1897 and was independent as Tokyo School of Foreign Languages two years later or in 1899. In the 1920s, Osaka School of Foreign Languages (old education system) was established in 1921, and Tenri School of Foreign Languages (predecessor of Tenri University) was established as the first private school of foreign languages as per the Acts of Colleges in 1927. Those schools of foreign languages were positioned as institutes for training of people who would conduct some activities in foreign countries such as diplomatic activities, trading or missionary work, and what characterized those schools was that they emphasized education of minor languages such as Chinese, Russian, Spanish, Portuguese, Malay and Indian languages other than English, French, and German, the essential academic subjects for those who intend to enter Imperial universities from senior high schools (old education system).

From 1944, almost every foreign language school was renamed 'foreign affairs college,' and this system survived basically until the school system reform after the end of World War II. At the same time, some private vocational schools changed their status to that of foreign affairs college. In 1946, after World War II, two public foreign affairs colleges, one in Kobe and the other in Kokura, were established as the last schools in the old education system.

When universities under the new system of education were established following the school system reform in 1949, many of them were incorporated or merged by four-year universities (and partly to junior colleges) and finally abolished in 1951.

National Schools (before 1877)

Tokyo School of Foreign Languages (old education system) (1873) => To be described later.

The 'Language Course' of Kaisei School, which originated to Bansho-wage Goyo (Government Office for Translation of Barbarian Books) established in 1857 by the Tokugawa Shogunate, was separated from Kaisei School, and language schools of the Foreign Affairs Ministry were integrated together with the said separated course to become Tokyo School of Foreign Languages.

Aichi School of Foreign Languages (1874)
Originated from 'Yo Gakko' (literally school of foreign affairs), Domain school of Owari Domain, established in 1870. It was renamed Aichi English Language School, but closed in 1877, and the school building and facilities were inherited by Aichi Junior High School in Aichi Prefecture, which was renamed Daiichi Junior High School in Aichi Prefecture in 1899 and then became the predecessor of today's Aichi Prefectural Asahigaoka High School.

Hiroshima School of Foreign Language (1874)
This school was renamed Hiroshima English Language School, closed in 1877, transferred to Hiroshima Prefecture (to become Hiroshima Prefectural English Language School), and restructured into Hiroshima Prefectural Junior High School. In 1922, the school was renamed Hiroshima Prefectural Hiroshima Daiichi Junior High School to become the predecessor of Hiroshima Prefectural Hiroshima Kokutaiji Senior High School.

Nagasaki School of Foreign Languages (1874)
Originated from 'Eigo Denshujo' (English language school) under the direct control of the Tokugawa Shogunate established in 1858. It was renamed Nagasaki English Language School, transferred to Nagasaki Prefecture upon its abolishment in 1877, restructured into Nagasaki Prefectural Nagasaki Junior High School (1878) and Nagasaki School of Foreign Languages (1882), and split into Nagasaki Prefectural Nagasaki Junior High School (established in 1884 as the predecessor of today's Nagasaki Prefectural Nagasaki Higashi Senior High School and Nagasaki Prefectural Nagasaki Nishi Senior High School) and Nagasaki Prefectural Nagasaki Commercial School (established in 1886 as the predecessor of today's Nagasaki City Nagasaki Commercial High School).

Niigata School of Foreign Languages (1874)
The school was renamed Niigata English Language School, merged by Prefectural Niigata School upon abolishment in 1877, restructured into Niigata Junior High School but closed in 1887.

Miyagi School of Foreign Languages (1874)
The school was renamed Miyagi English Language School, restructured sequentially to Prefectural Sendai Junior High School, Miyagi Junior High School, and Miyagi Prefectural Ordinary Middle School upon abolishment in 1877, and finally closed in 1888 (but some view the school became the origin of today's Miyagi Prefectural Sendai Daiichi High School via private Toka School).

Osaka School of Foreign Languages (1874)
Originated from Seimikyoku (state school on chemistry) established in Osaka in 1869. Renamed Osaka English Language School, sequentially restructured into Osaka Technical College (1879), Osaka Junior High School (1880), university branch campus (1885), and Daisan Higher Middle School (1886) and then Daisan Senior High School (old education system) in 1894. See the article of Daisan Senior High School (old education system) for its later history. There is no direct inheritance relation with Osaka School of Foreign Languages (old education system) (to be mentioned later) as per the Acts of Colleges.

Tokyo English Language School (1874)
The English Department of Tokyo School of Foreign Languages was separated to become Tokyo English Language School. It was later restructured into Preparatory School of the University of Tokyo (1877), Daiichi Higher Middle School (1886) and then to Daiichi High School (old education system) in 1894. See the article on Daiichi High School (old education system) for the later history.

National Schools (after 1877)

Tokyo School of Foreign Languages (old education system) (1899 [1874]; today's Tokyo University of Foreign Studies)
Regular courses included Faculties of English Language (Departments of Literature and International Trade), French Language (Departments of Literature and International Trade), German Language (Departments of Literature and International Trade), Russian Language (Departments of Literature, Trade and Exploitation), Italian Language (Departments of Literature, Trade and Exploitation), Spanish Language (Departments of Literature, Trade and Exploitation), Portuguese Language (Departments of Literature, Trade and Exploitation), Chinese Language (Departments of Literature, Trade and Exploitation), Mongolian Language (Departments of Trade and Exploitation), Thai Language (Departments of Trade and Exploitation), Malay Language (Departments of Trade and Exploitation), and Hindustani and Tamil Languages (Departments of Trade and Exploitation), and selective courses, special courses, intensive courses and advance courses were also established.

Established in November 1873

Merged by Tokyo Commercial School in September 1885.

School of Foreign Language Attached to Higher Commercial School established in April 1897.

Renamed Tokyo School of Foreign Languages and became independent (third national vocational school) in April 1899.

Renamed Tokyo Foreign Affairs College in April 1944.

Included in Tokyo University of Foreign Studies newly established under the new education system in May 1949.

Closed in March 1951.

Osaka School of Foreign Languages (old education system) (1921; today's Osaka University School of Foreign Studies)
Regular courses (Chinese, Mongolian, Malay, Indian, English, French, German, Russian, and Spanish), selective courses and special courses were established.

Established in December 1921 as per the Acts of Colleges.

Renamed Osaka Foreign Affairs College in April 1944.

Included in Osaka University of Foreign Studies (new education system) in May 1949.

Closed in March 1951.

Public Schools

Kobe City Foreign Affairs College (1946; today's Kobe City University of Foreign Studies)
Established in March 1946

Promoted to Kobe City University of Foreign Studies in February 1949.

Kobe City Foreign Affairs College closed in March 1951.

City Kokura Foreign Affairs College (1946; today's Faculty of Foreign Studies, University of Kitakyushu)
Established in July 1946.

Promoted to Kitakyushu University of Foreign Languages in April 1950.

Reformed to Kitakyushu University in April 1953 and renamed the University of Kitakyushu in April 2001.

City Kokura Foreign Affairs College closed in June 1954.

Private Schools

Tenri School of Foreign Languages (old education system) (1927; today's Tenri University)
Regular courses (Korean, Chinese, Malay, Spanish, Russian, English, Mongolian, and German), specialty courses, specialized courses, and advance courses were established. This was the first school, either private, public or national, that had the Faculty of Korean Language.

Established as a co-ed school in February 1925.

Established as per the Acts of Colleges in December 1927. Male students were accepted.

Female students were transferred to Tenri Girls' School (reformed to Tenri Girls' Vocational School in 1940).

Renamed Tenri Foreign Language College (while Tenri Girls' Vocational School renamed Tenri Girls' Foreign Language College) in April 1944.

Tenri Girls' Foreign Language College was integrated in April 1947.

Promoted to Tenri University in April 1949.

Tenri Foreign Language College closed in March 1951.

Zenrin Kyokai Senmon Gakko (Good Neighbor Society Vocational School) (old education system) (1944; closed)
Foreign language courses included Chinese, Mongolian, Russian, Annam, Thai, Burmese, Indian, Philippine, Malay, and Turkish.

Good Neighbor Society Vocational School established as a specialist school of business in February 1935.

Renamed Zenrin Higher Commercial School in April 1939.

Renamed Zenrin Foreign Affairs College in April 1944.

Renamed Zenrin Vocational School in April 1947.

Closed in 1950.

See the article on Zenrin Kyokai Senmon Gakko (Good Neighbor Society Vocational School) (old education system) for details.

Toa School of Foreign Affairs (1944; today's Reitaku University)
Toa Vocational School opened in April 1942.

Its predecessor is Dotoku Kagaku Senko Juku (lit. Moral Science research institute) established in 1935.

Renamed Toa School of Foreign Affairs in January 1944.

Renamed Chiba School of Foreign Affairs in January 1947.

Promoted to Reitaku Junior College in April 1950.

Reorganized to Reitaku University in 1959.

Doshisha Technical School of Foreign Affairs (1944; today's Doshisha University)
Established by integrating the Faculty of High Grade English Language and the Faculty of Law and Economy of Doshisha Technical School in April 1944.

It was then absorbed by the Faculties of Letters, Law, Economics, and Commerce of Doshisha University under the new education system in April 1949.

Doshisha Technical School of Foreign Affairs closed in March 1952.

Nanzan College of Foreign Languages (1946; today's Nanzan University)
Departments of English, Chinese, French and German were established.

Established by Nanzan Junior High School Foundation in July 1946.

Renamed Nagoya College of Foreign Languages in August 1947.

Promoted to Nanzan University in April 1949.

Nagoya College of Foreign Languages abolished in April 1951.

Fukuoka Foreign Affairs College (1947; today's Fukuoka University)
Established by 'Fukuoka Gaikokugo Gakuen' Foundation in February 1947.

Merged with Fukuoka College of Economics to become Fukuoka College of Commerce in April 1949.

Reorganized to Fukuoka University in 1956.

Kyoto School of Foreign Languages (1947; today's Kyoto University of Foreign Studies)
Established in May 1947.

Promoted to Kyoto Junior College of Foreign Languages in April 1950.

Reorganized into Kyoto University of Foreign Studies in 1959.