Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine (日吉大社)
Ohoyamakuhi no kami god (East shrine), Onamuchi no kami god (West shrine) are enshrined. Shrine Ranking of Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine - Shikiuchi sha or Myojin Taisha, (Shinto shrines listed in the Engishiki, books of regulations and laws), Nijuni-sha Shrines (the 22 most important Shinto shrines, as designated during the Heian period), Kanpei-taisha (Major Imperial shrine), and Beppyo jinja (Shrines on the Special List of Association of Shinto Shrines). Architecture of honden (the main building) features Hie zukuri (Hie design). The shrine is also called Sanno Gongen (god). Annual festival is held between April 12th and 15th (Sanno Festival). Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine (Hie Taisha Shrine) is in Sakamoto of Otsu City in Shiga Prefecture. It is also known as the shrine of Sanno Gongen (god). Hiyoshi Taisha is the main shrine amongst 2,000 Hiyoshi branch shrines across Japan. The former shrine ranking is Kanpei-taisha (Major Imperial shrine).
In the medieval period, it was categorized into one of the Lower Eight shrines of Nijuni-sha Shrines (the 22 most important Shinto shrines were classified into three types: Upper seven shrines, Middle seven shrines, Lower eight shrines)
Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine has precincts of 400,000 ㎡ mainly consisting East and West shrine. It is known for worshiping monkeys as Shinshi (Divine Servant).
Ohoyamakuhi no kami god is enshrined at East shrine, and Onamuchi no kami god (Okuninushi god) is enshrined at West shrine.
These two main shrines and the following five sessha (auxiliary shrine) are called Hiyoshi Shichisha (the Seven Hiyoshi Shrines) or Sanno Shichisha (the Seven Sanno Shrines).
Ushio-gu Shrine, (the enshrined deity - Oyamakui no kami aramitama)
Juge-gu Shrine (the enshrined deity - Kamotamayorihime no kami)
Sannomiya-gu Shrine (the enshrined deity - Kamotamayorihimeno kami aramitama).
Usa-gu Shrine (the enshrined deity - Tagorihime no kami)
Hakusan-gu Shrine (The enshrined deity - Kukurihime no mikoto)
Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine first appeared in the book called "Kojiki" (the Record of Ancient Matters), which says 'Ohoyamakuhi no kami god is also called Yamasueno Onushino Kami who is enshrined at Mt. Hiei in Chihatsu Ahaumi Province, which refers to Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine.'
Iwakura (dwelling place of a god, usually in reference to a large rock) is placed on the top of Mt. Ushio (Mt. Hachioji), and it was originally a place of worship. There were two Okumiya shrines on the side of Iwakura (Shrine built on the top of a mountain as a worship space), Ushio shrine and Sannomiya shrine, and the present East shrine was first established as Satomiya shrine (shrine built in village area as a worship space) of Ushio Shrine in B.C. 91. Satomiya shrine of Sannomiya Shrine is Kinoshita shrine. In 667, a year after Omikyo-sento (Transferring of the national capital to Omi Kyo), the god of Omiwa shrine was transferred to Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine for the sake of protecting Otsu kyo (Shiga Prefecture). Since then, the West shrine was called Omiya shrine as Onamuchi no kami god (the god enshrined at the West shrine) have been positioned as having a higher rank than the Ohoyamakuhi no kami god. Due to the capital being transferred to Heian Kyo (Kyoto), Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine started to have a reputation as a shrine that protected people from evil and disasters as it was located at Kimon (the northeastern (unlucky) direction) of the nation's new capital. In Engishiki Jinmyocho (the list of deities in Engishiki, books of regulations and laws), Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine was listed as one of Nijuni-sha Shrines (the 22 most important Shinto shrines, as designated during the Heian period), as well as Myojin Taisha (Shinto shrines listed in the Engishiki). Saicho, a Buddhism monk, erected Enryaku-ji temple on the Mt Hiei, and the Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine, jinushigami (tutelary deity) of Mt. Hiei, was admired as a shrine for protection of Enryaku-ji temple of Tendai sect. Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine was called Sanno Gongen, named after San-no Genhitsu shinkun enshrined in Tendai-san Kokusei-ji Temple, the head temple of Tendai sect in China. Enryaku-ji Temple taught Sanno-Shinto, a type of shintoism linked to the doctrine of Tendai sect religion and worshipped Sanno-gongen. In the medieval period, it was Mikoshi from Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine (portable shrine carried in festivals) which Monks of Mt. Hiei used to carry out petitions. Branches of Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine were established and gods were transferred to those branches while preaching Tendai sect across Japan. In 1571, Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine was destroyed in fire by an attack on Mt. Hiei by Nobunaga ODA. Present buildings were re-constructed after the Azuchi-Momoyama period. After the death of Nobunaga, Hideyoshi TOYOTOMI contributed to the rehabilitation of the Shrine. Hideyoshi's childhood name 'Hiyoshi Maru' and nickname 'Saru' (monkey) gave him the idea that this shrine was important to him. Buddhism lost its momentum due to the execution of the Edict for the Separation of Shinto and Buddhism in the Meiji period. In order to make the shrine as it was before, after the enshrined gods of the East shrine and West shrine were swapped, Ohoyamakuhi no kami god of West shrine became the main enshrined god, and East shrine enshrining Omononushi no kami god (Onamuchi no kami god) was demoted to Sessha (auxiliary shrine), Omiwa-jinja Shrine. The buildings were completely recovered in 1926.
Precincts of Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine
Once, people said that Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine has 108 shrines within its precincts and 108 shrines outside its precincts (Keidai 108 sha and Keigai 108 sha, literally meaning precincts 108 shrines and outer precincts 108 shrines). The major shrines include the following 21 shrines. The old name of the shrine was used up until the Edo period when both Shinto and Buddhism were still taught together. Also, shrines in the precincts of East Shrine are described as ones which protect families and lives of Ohoyamakuhi no kami god.
From the front view, West shrine seems to have irimoya style (building with a half-hipped roof). However, the roof is featured in Sugaruhafu style, the eaves of the roof on the back of the building is raised, and the edge of the roof is shorter as if being cut down vertically. The main shrine building of the East Shrine - erected in 1595. Its architecture is similar to that of the West Shrine. Until the early Showa period, the East Shrine was called 'the main shrine building of Omiwa Jinja Shrine'.
Important cultural property
The buildings below are all built in the Azuchi-Momoyama period except for Tosho-gu Shrine (established in the Edo period). Nishi-hongu Haiden (the Hall of worship of West Shrine).
Nishi-Hongu Romon (two-storied gate of West Shrine)
Higashi-hongu Haiden (the Hall of worship of East Shrine)
Higashi-Hongu Romon (two-storied gate of East Shrine)
Hiyoshi Sankyo (Three main bridges of Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine, Omiya bridge, Hashiri bridge, Ninomiya bridge) - all of them are made of stones. Sessha Usa-gu Honden (The main building of Usa-gu shrine, auxiliary shrine) - Its roof is featured with Hiyoshi design like the main buildings of Nishi Hon-gu shrine and Higashi Hon-gu shrine.
Sessha Usa-gu Haiden (the Hall of worship of Usa-gu Shrine, auxiliary shrine)
The main building of Juge-Jinja Shrine (auxiliary shrine) - Juge-Jinja shrine is located in a unique location as it is in the same precinct as the East Shrine, and the Sando (an approach to the shrine) of these shrines intersect vertically.
Sessha Juge-jinja Honden (the Hall of worship of Juge-jinja Shrine, auxiliary shrine)
Sessha Hakusanhime-jinja Honden (the main building of Hakusanhime-jinja Shrine, auxiliary shrine)
Sessha Hakusanhime-jinja Haiden (the hall of worship of Hakusanhime-jinja Shrine, auxiliary shrine). Sessha Ushio-jinja Honden (the main building of auxiliary Ushio-jinja Shrine) - Ushio-jinja Shrine and Sannomiya Shrine are on Mt. Hachioji, and their halls of worship are designed with a cascading architecture style.
Sessha Ushio-jinja Haiden (the hall of worship of Ushio-jinja Shrine, auxiliary shrine)
Sessha Sannomiya-jinja Honden (the main building of Sannomiya-jinja Shrine, auxiliary shrine)
Sessha Sannomiya-jinja Haiden (the hall of worship of auxiliary Sannomiya-jinja Shrine)
Hiyoshi Tosho-gu Honden, Haiden, Ishi no Ma (the hall of worship, the main building, and Ishi-no-ma (place between the hall of worship and the main building)
Massha Tosho-gu Karamon (Karamon gate of Tosho-gu Shrine, subordinate shrine)
Massha Tosho-gu Sukibei (Subordinate Tosho-gu Shrine's transparent fence)
Hiyoshi Sanno Kondo-so Shinyo 7 units (7 units of Gold and Copper colored portable shrine (carried in festivals) of Hiyoshi Sanno god)
Precincts of Hiyoshi Taisha Shrine
Delisted cultural heritage
Tosho-gu bridge (stone bridge) - previously registered as national treasure. The bridge was delisted as cultural heritage when it was debouched by the flood on June 29, 1935.