Emonfu (Headquarters of the Outer Palace Gate Guard) (衛門府)

Emonfu was a government office under the Ritsuryo system (a system of centralized government based on the Ritsuryo Code). Originally there was only the Emonfu, but it was temporarily abolished in 808 due to its integration with Eshifu (whose functions were the same as those of Emonfu); then in 811, Emonfu was restored along with the renaming of Sayu Eshifu (left and right division of the outer palace gate guard), and.Saemonfu (left division of outer palace gate guard) and Uemonfu (right division of outer palace guard) were positioned there. The head of Emonfu was called "Emon no kami" (later Saemon no kami (captain of the left division of outer palace gate guard) and Uemon no kami (captain of the right division of outer palace gate guard). Emonfu was also called 'Yugehi no tsukasa' in the Japanese way by using the kanji character for 'yugei' (gate guard).
Its Chinese names were Kingo (according to a theory, the name was derived from a bird which was said to keep out ominous events),
Kanmon (gate guard),
and Kanfu (guard division).

In the beginning Emonfu was called 'Goefu' (five guards) along with the Sayu (left and right) Eshifu and Sayu Hyoe-fu (division of the middle palace gate guard); after restoration, it was called 'Rokuefu' (six guards) along with the Sayu Konoefu (division of the inner palace guard) and the Sayu Hyoe-fu. For the purpose of convenience, Emonfu before integration is described as 'the former period,' and Emonfu after being renamed is described as 'the latter period' in this article.

The former period

Also positioned was Eshi, with a core of the Monbu (gate division), which carried on the yugei traditions. As the role of guarding the kyujo gate (place where the Emperor lives) was continuously assumed by a clan from ancient times, the post was named Emonfu ("e" meaning "to guard," "mon" meaning "gate," and "fu" meaning "division"). Emonfu's official duties were to guard the Miya-mon Gate and interrogate passersbys. The post was renamed Shimone in 758 (the Emperor Junnin) as a part of trend towards Chinese style official names by FUJIWARA no Nakamaro, but in 764 (the Emperor Shotoku) the post was again renamed Emonfu after the downfall of FUJIWARA no Nakamaro. The post was merged into Sayu Eshifu on July 22, 808, and with this Sayu Eshifu was standardized.

Officials are as listed as follows.
Kami (captain) (corresponds to the official court rank of Shogoinojo (Upper Grade Senior Fifth Rank) under the Ritsuryo system;
the post was promoted to Jushiinoge (Lower Grade Junior Fourth Rank) on June 9, 799 and was established;
the regular number is one person each for the left and right posts.)

Suke (assistant captain) (corresponds to the official court rank of Jugoinoge (Lower Grade Junior Fifth Rank) under the Ritsuryo system;
the post was promoted to Jugoinojo (Upper Grade Junior Fifth Rank) on June 9, 799 and was established;
the regular number is one person each for the left and right posts.)

Taijo (senior lieutenant) (corresponds to Jurokuinoge (Lower Grade Junior Sixth Rank) under the Ritsuryo system;
the regular number is two persons each for the left and right Efu (palace guard) and Emonfu, respectively.)
Shojo (junior lieutenant) (corresponds to Shoshichiinoge (Upper Grade Senior Seventh Rank) under the Ritsuryo system;
the regular number is two persons each for the left and right Efu and Emonfu, respectively.)

Daishi (senior assistant lieutenant) (corresponds to Shohachiinoge (Lower Grade Senior Eighth Rank) under the Ritsuryo system;
the regular number is two persons each for the left and right Efu (palace guard) and Emonfu, respectively.)
Shoshi (junior assistant lieutenant) (corresponds to Juhachiinojo (Upper Grade Junior Eighth Rank) under the Ritsuryo system;
the regular number is two persons each for the left and right Efu (palace guard) and Emonfu, respectively.)

Ishi (physician) (corresponds to Shohachiinoge (Lower Grade Senior Eighth Rank)

Monbu: Guards the Miya-mon Gate. Eshi: Guards the Miya-mon Gate. Mononobe (security guard): Interrogates passersby.

Shibe (low rank bureaucrat)
Jikicho (general worker)
Furthermore, Emonfu held Hayato Office as Hikan (low level bureaucrat) until the merger with Eshifu
(afterwards the control was transferred to the Ministry of the Military).

The latter period

Left and right Eshifu were reorganized and renamed on November 28, 811, and left and right Emonfu was inaugurated. Left and right Emonfu's official duty was to guard the outer baileys of the kyujo (baileys that are outward the Kenshun Gate, Kenrei Gate, Gishu Gate, Sakuhei Gate of Daidairi (inside the palace), and those which are inward the Yomei Gate, Inpu Gate, Suzaku Gate, and Ikan Gate of Daidairi).
Just for the record, the guardroom of the left Emon (gate guard) was at the Kenshun Gate;
the guardroom of the right Emon was at the Gishu Gate, respectively. Originally the Office of Police and Judicial Chief was placed within Emonfu as an additional post of Emonfu government officials. It was common for the Uemon no kami (captain of the right division of outer palace guards) to double as Kebiishi no betto (superintendent of the Imperial Police).

Later the official duties were displaced by Kebiishi (a police and judicial chief) and samurai families.

Officials are as follows.
Kami ((captain)
corresponds to Jushiinoge (Lower Grade Junior Fourth Rank);
Tang names are Kingo taishogun (senior shogun Kingo),
Kanmon taishogun (senior gate guard shogun);
the regular number is one person each for the left and right posts;
has no gonkan (supernumerary position).

Suke ((assistant director)
corresponds to the Jugoinojo (Upper Grade Junior Fifth Rank);
Tang names are Kingo shogun,
Kingo jisho (deputy Kingo),
Kanmon shoshogun (junior gate guard shogun),
Kanmon jisho (deputy gate guard shogun).
The regular number is one person each for the left and right posts;
has gonkan.)

Daijo (senior lieutenant)
(corresponds to Jurokuinoge (Lower Grade Junior Sixth Rank);
the regular number began with two persons each for the left and right posts, but was increased.)
Shojo ((junior lieutenant)
(corresponds to Shoshichiinoge (Upper Grade Senior Seventh Rank);
the regular number began with two persons each for the left and right posts, but was increased);
Tang names are Kingo choshi,
Kingo koi,
Emon choshi;
generally, court nobles for daijo,
samurai families for shojo was a manner of appointment.

Daishi ((daisokan) (senior assistant lieutenant)
(corresponds to Shohachiinoge (Lower Grade Senior Eighth Rank);
the regular number began with two persons each for the left and right, but appointees for the job grade were lessened along with the decline of the power of fu (state)).
Shoshi ((shoshokan) (junior assistant lieutenant);
(corresponds to Juhachiinoge (Lower Grade Junior Eighth Rank);
the regular number began with two persons each for the left and right, but appointees for the job grade were lessened along with the decline of the power of fu).

Ishi (corresponds to Shohachiinoge (Lower Grade Senior Eighth Rank))

Eshi: Bancho was positioned for guarding and controlling the kyujo, and kichisho (or kichijo) was positioned as the watch for the Gate.
Monbu
Mononobe

Fusho
Fusho
Shibu
Jikicho (factotum)