Han-i was a doctor who served a feudal domain in the Edo period.
Although social status and job ranks varied by domains, there were doctors who served only the feudal lord and his family, and those who cared for others, as in the case of Edo shogunate having okui ishi (inner doctors for the Tokugawa family) and omote ishi (for others). In many cases, doctors were separated into those holding hereditary positions in the samurai class and lower-ranking physicians who came from lower-ranking samurai or ordinary families. Prior to taking over a family head position or during apprenticeship, hon-i was paid heyazumi-ryo and after completing apprenticeship or becoming the family head, his salary was paid in full. In accordance to medical practices at that time, there were physicians in charge of 'hondo,' or internal medicine, and others called 'zakka' covering all other areas of medical care including surgery, ophthalmology, dentistry, acupuncture and moxibustion.
Although it was common that talented doctors in the samurai class were appointed the post of doctor for the lord, there were some rare cases of lower-ranking or folk doctors appointed to serve the feudal lord. The latter was called the omemie-ishi (privileged doctor). In addition, there was another practice which doctors worked in shifts at the castle when the doctor serving the lord was away.