Hyojoshu (government post) (評定衆)

Hyojoshu was a government post established during the periods of Kamakura and Muromachi. During the Kamakura period, Hyojoshu was the highest organ of government, which presided over all of administration, jurisdiction, and legislation.

History

Hyojoshu originated from the council system with 13 councilors started in 1199 to restrain the dictatorship of MINAMOTO no Yoriie, and was established as a system by Yasutoki HOJO, the regent of the Kamakura bakufu (Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun), in 1225 to operate the government under the nominal control of the young Lord of Kamakura, FUJIWARA no Yoritsune from a regent family, by the leading immediate vessels of the Lord. In 1225, Masako HOJO and Hioromoto OE, who had supported the Kamakura bakufu from the beginning, died, which is considered a reason that the government needed a new council system. As Hyojoshu was headed by the regent, the head was handed down by the HOJO clan for generations.

During the latter half of the Kamakura period, Hyojoshu turned into a mere formality as the private council presided by the main line of the HOJO clan, the then head of the HOJO family, gradually came into power. During the Muromachi period, Hyojoshu was established as an organization of the Muromachi bakufu mainly as just an honorary post with little authority.