Ongoku Bugyo (遠国奉行)

Ongoku Bugyo were placed in important places within Shogunate-owned land (tenryo) outside of Edo, and were divided into bugyo (magistrate)and yakugata who handled the governance of that land. In addition to the machi-bugyo (town magistrate) appointed for Osaka, Kyoto and Sunpu, bugyo were also appointed for other places such as Nagasaki; these positions were mainly held by bakufu hatamoto (direct retainers of the bakufu, which is a form of Japanese feudal government headed by a shogun). As an office of the Shikoseki (waiting place for their turns in which Daimyo or Hatamoto who attended to the Edo Castle to have an audience with a Shogun) -Ritsuryo system under control of the roju (member of shogun's council of elders), the tashidaka system (a wage system established by Edo bakufu) varied from 1000 to 2000 koku, depending on the location, and a salary was sometimes provided.

The area of jurisdiction was called bugyo chigyosho, and when the Edo bakufu fell in 1868, the Meiji government installed and transitioned the early Meiji fu in 9 main places, including Edo. Among these, the name of Edo-fu was later changed to Tokyo-fu. Until the abolition of domains and establishment of prefectures in 1871, the early Meiji fu of Hakodate-fu, Kanagawa-fu, Echigo-fu, Niigata-fu, Kai-fu, Watarai-fu, Nara-fu and Nagasaki-fu, excluding Tokyo-fu, Osaka-fu and Kyoto-fu, were each established and transitioned.

Kyoto Machi-Bugyo

For details refer to Kyoto Machi-Bugyo.

The roju ruled, but because of the location, he conducted business at the command of the Kyoto Shoshidai (The Kyoto deputy). In addition to Kyoto's city governance, in order to exercise rule over tenryo (bakufu-owned land) in the Kinai region (the five capital provinces surrounding the ancient capitals of Nara and Kyoto) and shrine and temple lands, the post involved serving concurrently as three kinds of bugyo: jisha-bugyo (magistrate of temples and shrines), kanjo bugyo (commissioner of finance), and machi bugyo. There were 2 positions, with 2 bugyo offices located in the east and west. The allotment was 1500 koku, and 600 koku of rice were provided as a stipend. As subordinates there were 20 yoriki (a police sergeant) and 50 doshin doshin (a police constable).

Fushimi Bugyo

Put in place of the Jodai (the keeper of castle) after Fushimi-jo Castle was razed. 1 position. In order to control (so that daimyo (Japanese territorial lord) in the middle of their Sankinkotai (a system under which feudal lords in the Edo period were required to spend every other year in residence in Edo) could not enter Kyoto without permission and contact the imperial court) Fushimi-juku and the banks of the Yodo-gawa River, which are the entrance to Kyoto, this was the only post among the Ongoku Bugyo that was filled by a daimyo. For that reason the tashidaka system was not applicable, but a stipend of 3000 bales of rice was provided. As subordinates there were 10 yoriki and 50 doshin. Also, ties to the Kyoto Shoshidai and the Kyoto Machi-bugyo were strong, and sometimes he would run to assist them when there were major events in Kyoto. During the Kanbun years, the Kyoto Machi-bugyo was formally treated as a non-member of the Fushimi Bugyo, although in the Genroku and Bunka years the Fushimi Bugyo was integrated with the Kyoto Machi-bugyo. In fact, when Masamichi KOBORI was Fushimi Bugyo, an incident called the Fushimi Riot occurred, and Masamichi's Omi Komuro Domain came under feud suppression.

Osaka Machi-Bugyo

For details refer to Osaka Machi-Bugyo.

There were 2 positions, with 2 bugyo offices located in the east and west. The allotment was 1500 koku, and 600 koku of rice were provided as a stipend. As subordinates there were 30 yoriki and 50 doshin.

Sunpu Machi-Bugyo

In addition to governance of the town below Sunpu-jo Castle, he controlled Ejiri and Maruko inn towns on the Tokaido road, and Shimizu Port. 1 position. The allotment was 1000 koku, and 500 bales of rice were provided as a stipend. As subordinates there were 8 yoriki and 60 doshin.

Nagasaki Bugyo

For details refer to Nagasaki Bugyo. In addition to Nagasaki town governance, duties included trade with Holland. There were many changes in the number of positions, starting at one, then increased to two from 1633, three from 1686, and four from 1700, but it was set at two from the Hoei era on. The allotment was 1000 koku, and 440 bales of rice were provided as a stipend. As subordinates there were 10 yoriki and 15 doshin.

Shimoda Bugyo/Uraga Bugyo

In charge of supervision of ships entering Edo Bay. At first, in 1616, was stationed in Shimoda City in Izu Province, but in 1720, in keeping with the increased economic activity in Edo Bay, it was moved to Uraga in Sagami Province. 1 position. The allotment was 1000 koku, and 500 bales of rice were provided as a stipend. As subordinates there were 10 yoriki and 50 doshin. Because it became a window of negotiations with foreign countries toward the end of the Shogunate, the number of positions was increased, and in 1842-1844 and 1854-1860 Shimoda Bugyo was installed again to provide for the arrival of foreign ships, during which time the Bugyo offices in Uraga and Shimoda existed concurrently. Members of the Aizu clan mainly filled the post.

Yamada Bugyo

Also called Ise Bugyo. At first, the Bugyo office was located at Yamada in Ise Province (present-day Ise City, Mie Prefecture), and was later moved to Kobayashi, Watarai District, Ise Province (present-day Kobayashi, Misono Village, Ise City). Was in charge of guarding Ise-jingu Shrine and ruling the temple town, litigation in Ise and Shima, and security in Toba Port. There was one position, then became two in 1696, with stations alternating between the field and Edo. Allotment was 1000 koku, and a stipend of 1500 bales of rice was provided. Subordinates were 6 yoriki, 70 doshin and 40 suishu (sailor). Because it had contact with the fief of the Kishu Tokugawa family, one of Tokugawa gosanke (three privileged branches of Tokugawa family), disputes occurred periodically; Tadasuke OOKA, who was active as the Edo Machibugyo at the time of Shogun Yoshimune, served at the post for a time; and there is known to be a legend that Yoshimune TOKUGAWA, who was impressed by Tadasuke's work as Bugyo when he was chief of the Kishu clan, later chose him.

In 1603 the Edo bakufu placed the Yamada Bugyo Office on the shrine lands of Ise-daijingu Shrine.
In addition to security of the two grand shrines Geku (outer shrine) and Naiku (inner shrine), he also controlled the supervision of suspicious foreign ships in Ise Bay and the southern sea, even outside of Ise-Shima shrine territory, but the most important duty of the Yamada Bugyo, who was equal in standing to the Nikko Bugyo, was to carry out the '21st year rebuilding of Ise Shrine.'
To begin with, the head priest of Ise Shrine was also in charge of rebuilding the shrine, but Tadayuki AISU, the Governor of Iyo Province, who might have been the father of Kage-ryu school founder Hisatada AISU, was the first samurai to serve as bugyo over the Shrine lands during the Bunmei years.
[The jinryo bugyo office was built where the Jingu saishu (head priest of the Ise Shrine) had once resided.]
The Edo Bakufu continued the work begun by Tadayuki AISU, the Governor of Iyo Province, by rebuilding of the shrine without interruption until the Meiji Restoration, demonstrating a reverence of the gods and ancestors that was even greater than that of MINAMOTO no Yoritomo. The cost of rebuilding the shrine is said to have been about 32.7 billion yen in 2005 at the 61st rebuilding, which shows just how much the Yamada Bugyos did for Ise-jingu Shrine over the years.

Even before the Bugyo came to live in Kobayashi Village in 1641, there were ships called Kujaku-maru and Tora-maru, in May of 1728 for some reason the Bugyo, Hoshina of the Awaji Governor sank the ship Tora-maru in the waters of Ominato. This is the most rare of recent events. If the Kujaku-maru is stained and there is no ship available for use, those 75 suishu/doshin will work regularly at their office duties' is written in Gofushin-yaku Onkumigashira HASHIMOTO Ichirozaemon Shigenaga's "Kyoho Kojitsu Biboroku."
("Ise Yamada Bugyo Chronology" by Sekishu HASHIMOTO, descendant of Gofushin-yaku Onkumigashira)

Nikko Bugyo

In charge of Nikko Tosho-gu Shrine Shugo (provincial constable). 2 positions, 1 of which was stationed in Edo. Allotment was 2000 koku, and a stipend of 500 bales of rice was provided. Subordinates were 36 doshin.

Nara Bugyo

Established for supervision of Kofuku-ji Temple, Todai-ji Temple and other large temples in Nara, and rule over their temple towns (Nara-machi/Nara Kita-machi). 1 position. Allotment was 1000 koku, and a stipend of 700 bales of rice was provided. Subordinates were 7 yoriki and 30 doshin. The Bugyo office was located on the grounds of what is now Nara Women's University.

Sakai Bugyo

For details, refer to Sakai Bugyo. 1 position. Allotment was 1000 koku, and a stipend of 600 koku in rice was provided. Subordinates were 10 yoriki and 50 doshin.

Hakodate Bugyo (Matsumae Bugyo)

Established for policing the northern frontier in 1802, when the bakufu confiscated the Ezo lands that had been part of the Matsumae Domain. Also responsible for dealing with foreigners in the open port of Hakodate at the end of the Shogunate. 2 positions, one of which was stationed in Edo. Allotment was 2000 koku, and a stipend of 1500 bales of rice was provided. The Bugyo office was originally located in present-day Motomachi Park (Motomachi, Hakodate City), but was moved to Goryokaku Castle after it was built.

Niigata Bugyo

Established to rule the area around Niigata City that became tenryo (bakufu-owned land) in 1843. The reason for the establishment was management of Niigata Port, which was a key point for traffic on the Sea of Japan. Later, when the country was opened, Niigata became an open port, so its importance increased.

Haneda Bugyo

Was established in 1842 in Haneda (Ota Ward), as part of a policy to strengthen defenses of Edo Bay against the arrival of foreign ships, but was abolished 2 years later.

Persons Serving as Haneda Bugyo

Katsuyuki TANAKA – December 24, 1842 to May 24, 1844

Institution and Transition in the Early Meiji Period.

Dates are in the old calendar.